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Cusco Region
CUSCO, also spelled CUZCO (Spanish pronunciation: ; Quechua : Qusqu suyu), is a region in Peru
Peru
. It is bordered by the Ucayali Region on the north; the Madre de Dios and Puno regions on the east; the Arequipa Region
Arequipa Region
on the south; and the Apurímac , Ayacucho and Junín regions on the west. Its capital is Cusco
Cusco
, the capital of the Inca Empire . CONTENTS * 1 Geography
Geography
* 2 Provinces * 3 Languages * 4 Toponyms * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 Sources * 8 External links GEOGRAPHYThe plain of Anta contains some of the best communal cultivated lands of the Cusco
Cusco
Region. It is located about 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) above sea level and is used to cultivate mainly high altitude crops such as potatoes , tarwi (edible lupin ), barley and quinoa
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Tea
TEA is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia. After water, it is the most widely consumed drink in the world. There are many different types of tea; some, like Darjeeling
Darjeeling
and Chinese greens , have a cooling, slightly bitter, and astringent flavour, while others have vastly different profiles that include sweet, nutty, floral or grassy notes. Tea
Tea
originated in Southwest China , where it was used as a medicinal drink . It was popularized as a recreational drink during the Chinese Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, and tea drinking spread to other East Asian countries. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to Europe during the 16th century
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Quinoa
QUINOA (/ˈkiːnwɑː/ or /kɪˈnoʊ.ə/ , from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is the common name for CHENOPODIUM QUINOA, a flowering plant in the amaranth family Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds . Because it is not a grass , it is a pseudocereal rather than a true cereal . Quinoa is closely related to the edible plants beetroot , spinach , and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), another pseudocereal which it closely resembles. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the outer coating that contains bitter-tasting saponins . They are gluten-free. Generally, the seeds are cooked the same way as rice and can be used in a wide range of dishes. The leaves are sometimes eaten as a leaf vegetable , much like amaranth, but commercial availability of quinoa greens is limited
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Barley
BARLEY ( Hordeum
Hordeum
vulgare L.), a member of the grass family , is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia
Eurasia
as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley
Barley
has been used as animal fodder , as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages , and as a component of various health foods . It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley
Barley
grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2014, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced (144 million tonnes ) behind corn, rice and wheat
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Maize
MAIZE (/meɪz/ MAYZ ; Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish : maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as CORN, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico
Mexico
about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears , which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize
Maize
has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with total production surpassing that of wheat or rice . However, not all of this maize is consumed directly by humans. Some of the maize production is used for corn ethanol , animal feed and other maize products , such as corn starch and corn syrup . The six major types of corn are dent corn , flint corn , pod corn , popcorn , flour corn , and sweet corn
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Potato
The POTATO is a starchy , tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade SOLANUM TUBEROSUM. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber. In the Andes
Andes
, where the species is indigenous, some other closely related species are cultivated. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish. Potato
Potato
has become a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply . It is the world's fourth-largest food crop, following maize , wheat , and rice . The green leaves and green skins of tubers exposed to the light are toxic. Wild potato species can be found throughout the Americas from the United States
United States
to southern Chile
Chile

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Spanish Language
The SPANISH LANGUAGE (/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen ); Español (help ·info )), also called the CASTILIAN LANGUAGE (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen ), castellano (help ·info )), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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2007 Peru Census
The 2007 PERU CENSUS was a detailed enumeration of the Peruvian population. It was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática on Sunday, October 21, 2007. Its full name in Spanish is XI CENSO DE POBLACIóN Y VI DE VIVIENDA (Eleventh Population and Sixth Household Census). The previous census performed in Peru
Peru
was the 2005 Census
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Lupin
LUPINUS, commonly known as LUPIN or LUPINE (North America), is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family , Fabaceae
Fabaceae
. The genus includes over 200 species , with centers of diversity in North and South America. Smaller centers occur in North Africa
North Africa
and the Mediterranean . Seeds of various species of lupins have been used as a food for over 3000 years around the Mediterranean and for as much as 6000 years in the Andean highland
Andean highland
, but they have never been accorded the same status as soybeans or dry peas and other pulse crops. The pearl lupin of the Andean highlands of South America, Lupinus
Lupinus
mutabilis, known locally as tarwi or chocho, was extensively cultivated, but no conscious genetic improvement other than to select for larger and water-permeable seeds seems to have been made
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Gold
GOLD is a chemical element with symbol AU (from Latin : aurum) and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable , and ductile metal . Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element . It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions . Gold
Gold
often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks , in veins , and in alluvial deposits . It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum ) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium . Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium (gold tellurides ). Gold
Gold
is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis , from the collision of neutron stars , and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System
Solar System
formed
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Inca Empire
The INCA EMPIRE (Quechua : Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions" ), also known as the INCAN EMPIRE and the INKA EMPIRE, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America , and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru
Peru
. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods
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Inca
The INCA EMPIRE (Quechua : Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions" ), also known as the INCAN EMPIRE and the INKA EMPIRE, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America , and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru
Peru
. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries , dependent territories , special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. CONTENTS * 1 Parts * 2 Editions * 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency * 3.1 Members * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PARTSIt consists of three parts: * ISO 3166-1 , Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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UBIGEO
UBIGEO is the coding system for geographical sgdstituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática INEI ) to code the first-level administrative subdivision: regions (Spanish: regiones, singular: región), the second-level administrative subdivision: provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular: provincia) and the third-level administrative subdivision: districts (Spanish: distritos, singular: distrito). CONTENTS * 1 Syntax * 2 Examples * 2.1 Regions * 2.2 Provinces * 2.3 Districts * 3 Recent additions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SYNTAXThe coding system uses two-digit numbers for each level of subdivision. The first level starts numbering at 01 for the Amazonas Region and continues in alphabetical order up to 25 for the Ucayali Region . Additional regions will be added to the end of the list, starting with the first available number
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