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Culture Of Iceland
The CULTURE OF ICELAND is rich and varied as well as being known for its literary heritage which began in the 12th century. Other Icelandic traditional arts include weaving , silversmithing , and wood carving . The Reykjavík
Reykjavík
area has several professional theatres, a symphony orchestra, an opera, and a large number of art galleries, bookstores, cinemas, and museums. There are also four active folk dance ensembles in Iceland. Iceland's literacy rate is among the highest in the world, and a love of literature , art , chess , and other intellectual pursuits is widespread. Iceland
Iceland
is the size of Ohio
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Newfoundland And Labrador
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR (/njuːfənˈlænd ən ˈlæbrədɔːr/ , French : Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Innu : Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish : Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada
Canada
. Situated in the country's Atlantic region , it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador
Labrador
to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres (156,500 sq mi). In 2013, the province's population was estimated at 526,702. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland (and its neighbouring smaller islands), of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula . The province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.6% of residents reporting English (Newfoundland English ) as their mother tongue in the 2006 census
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Vinland
VINLAND, VINELAND or WINLAND ( Old Norse : Vínland) is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings , where Leif Erikson first landed in ca. 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot . Vinland was the name given to North America as far as it was explored by the Vikings, presumably including both Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as far as northeastern New Brunswick (where the eponymous grapevines are found). In 1960, archaeological evidence of a Norse settlement in North America (outside Greenland ) was found at L\'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland. Before the discovery of archaeological evidence, Vinland was known only from Old Norse sagas and medieval historiography
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Egils Saga
EGIL\'S SAGA or EGILL\'S SAGA (Old Norse : EGILS SAGA; listen (help ·info )) is an Icelandic saga (family saga) on the lives of the clan of Egill Skallagrímsson
Egill Skallagrímsson
(Anglicised as Egil Skallagrimsson), an Icelandic farmer, viking and skald . The saga spans the years c. 850–1000 and traces the family history from Egil's grandfather to his offspring. Its oldest manuscript (a fragment) dates back to 1240 AD, and comprises the sole source of information on the exploits of Egil, whose life is not historically recorded. Stylistic and other similarities between Egil's Saga and Heimskringla
Heimskringla
have led many scholars to believe that they were the work of the same author, Snorri Sturluson . The work is generally referred to as EGLA by Icelandic scholars
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Laxdæla Saga
LAXDæLA SAGA (Icelandic pronunciation: ( listen )); also LAXDœLA SAGA, LAXDOELA SAGA, LAXDAELA SAGA, or THE SAGA OF THE PEOPLE OF LAXáRDALR) is one of the Icelanders\' sagas . Written in the 13th century, it tells of people in the Breiðafjörður area of Iceland from the late 9th century to the early 11th century. The saga particularly focuses on a love triangle between Guðrún Ósvífrsdóttir , Kjartan Ólafsson and Bolli Þorleiksson . Kjartan and Bolli grow up together as close friends but the love they both have for Guðrún causes enmity between them and, in the end, their deaths. Second only to Njáls saga
Njáls saga
in the number of medieval manuscripts preserved, Laxdæla saga
Laxdæla saga
remains popular and appreciated for its poetic beauty and pathetic sentiment
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Grettis Saga
GRETTIS SAGA ÁSMUNDARSONAR ( listen (help ·info )) (also known as Grettla, Grettir's Saga or The Saga of Grettir the Strong) is one of the Icelanders\' sagas . It details the life of Grettir Ásmundarson, a bellicose Icelandic outlaw . Grettir is ready to fight in this illustration from a 17th-century Icelandic manuscript CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Story * 3 Legacy * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWThe saga is categorised as one of the Sagas of Icelanders (Íslendingasögur) all of which were written in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries and are fairly realistic accounts of events taking place between the ninth and the eleventh century in Iceland . The subject of such texts is usually conflicts over wealth, prestige, and power. The author is unknown but it is believed that his story may have been based on a previous account of Grettir's life written by Sturla Þórðarson
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Greenland
GREENLAND (Greenlandic : Kalaallit Nunaat, pronounced ; Danish : Grønland, pronounced ) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America
North America
, Greenland
Greenland
has been politically and culturally associated with Europe
Europe
(specifically Norway
Norway
and Denmark, the colonial powers , as well as the nearby island of Iceland
Iceland
) for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit
Inuit
, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island
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Saga Of Eric The Red
EIRíKS SAGA RAUðA ( listen (help ·info )) or the SAGA OF ERIK THE RED is a saga , thought to have been composed before 1265, on the Norse exploration of North-America . Despite the name, the saga mainly chronicles the life and expedition of Thorfinn Karlsefni and his wife Gudrid, characters also seen in the Greenland saga . The saga also details the events that led to Erik the Red 's banishment to Greenland and Leif Ericson 's preaching of Christianity as well as his discovery of Vinland after his longship was blown off course. By geographical details, this place is thought to be present-day Newfoundland , and was probably the first European discovery of the American mainland, some five centuries before Christopher Columbus 's arrival in the Antilles . The saga is preserved in two manuscripts in somewhat different versions; Hauksbók (14th century) and Skálholtsbók (15th century). Modern philologists believe the Skálholtsbók version to be truer to the original
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Jóhannes úr Kötlum
JóHANNES úR KöTLUM – born Jóhannes Bjarni Jónasson (1899–1972) was an Icelandic author/poet and a member of parliament . He is one of the most loved Icelandic poets – not least for his verse for children and how beautifully his words flow in the Icelandic language – making them ideal for songs. Indeed, his poems have been a constant inspiration for composers, songwriters and musicians in Iceland. More than two hundred songs and compositions have been written based on his poems/lyrics, some even performed by internationally recognised artists such as Björk here performing the song about The Christmas Cat. One of the salient figures of modern Icelandic poetry, Jóhannes mastered both the intricate traditional forms and the modern, but as an outspoken, idealistic and sometimes scathing critic of political institutions, he courted controversy and often drew the ire of political opponents
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Icelanders' Sagas
The SAGAS OF ICELANDERS (Icelandic : Íslendingasögur), also known as FAMILY SAGAS, are prose narratives mostly based on historical events that mostly took place in Iceland in the 9th, 10th, and early 11th centuries, during the so-called Saga Age . They are the best-known specimens of Icelandic literature . They are focused on history, especially genealogical and family history. They reflect the struggle and conflict that arose within the societies of the early generations of Icelandic settlers. Eventually many of Icelandic sagas were recorded, mostly in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The 'authors', or rather recorders of these sagas are unknown. One saga, Egils saga , is believed by some scholars to have been written by Snorri Sturluson , a descendant of the saga's hero, but this remains uncertain. The standard modern edition of Icelandic sagas is known as Íslenzk fornrit
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Njáls Saga
NJáLS SAGA (modern Icelandic pronunciation: listen (help ·info )) (also NJáLA ( listen (help ·info )), BRENNU-NJáLS SAGA ( listen (help ·info )) or "THE STORY OF BURNT NJáLL") is a thirteenth-century Icelandic saga that describes events between 960 and 1020. The principal characters are the friends Njáll Þorgeirsson , a lawyer and a sage, and Gunnar Hámundarson
Gunnar Hámundarson
, a formidable warrior. Gunnar's wife instigates a feud that leads to the death of many characters over several decades including the killing by fire of the eponymous "Burnt Njáll". The saga deals with this process of blood feuds in the Icelandic Commonwealth , showing how the requirements of honor could lead to minor slights spiralling into destructive and prolonged bloodshed. Insults where a character's manhood is called into question are especially prominent and may reflect an author critical of an overly restrictive ideal of masculinity
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Grœnlendinga Saga
GRœNLENDINGA SAGA ( listen (help ·info )) (spelled GRæNLENDINGA SAGA in modern Icelandic and translated into English as the SAGA OF THE GREENLANDERS) is one of the sagas of Icelanders . Along with Saga of Erik the Red , it is one of the two main literary sources of information for the Norse exploration of North America . It relates the colonization of Greenland by Erik the Red and his followers. It then describes several expeditions further west led by Erik's children and Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson . The saga is preserved in the late 14th century Flateyjarbók manuscript and is believed to have been first committed to writing sometime in the 13th century while the events it relates take place around 970 to 1030. Parts of the saga are fanciful but it is believed to be based on historical truth
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Gísla Saga
GíSLA SAGA SúRSSONAR (Icelandic pronunciation: ( listen ), the saga of Gísli Súrsson) is one of the sagas of Icelanders . It tells the story of Gísli, a tragic hero who must kill one of his brothers-in-law to avenge another brother-in-law. Gisli is outlawed and forced to stay on the run for thirteen years before he is finally hunted down and killed. The events depicted in the saga take place between 860 and 980. The saga existed in oral tradition until it was recorded, most likely in the 13th century. In 1981, it was made into a film titled Outlaw: The Saga of Gisli . CONTENTS * 1 Manuscripts and dating * 2 Themes * 3 Synopsis * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links MANUSCRIPTS AND DATINGGísla saga survives in thirty-three manuscripts and fragments from the Middle Ages down to the twentieth century
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Gunnlaugs Saga Ormstungu
GUNNLAUGS SAGA ORMSTUNGU ( listen (help ·info )) or the SAGA OF GUNNLAUGR SERPENT-TONGUE is one of the Icelanders\' sagas . Composed at the end of the 13th century, it is preserved complete in a slightly younger manuscript. It contains 25 verses of skaldic poetry attributed to the main characters. It is an important work in both Norwegian and Icelandic literary history. Gunnlaugr is sometimes Anglicized as Gunnlaug. The cognomen can also be translated as Worm-Tongue or Snake-Tongue. The saga has similarities to earlier sagas of poets, such as Kormáks saga and Bjarnar saga , but it is more refined and elegant with strong characterization and emotional impact. Long considered a masterpiece, the saga is often read by beginning students of Old Norse literature
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Norway
Indigenous status: * Sami Minority status: * Jewish * Traveller * Forest Finn * Romani * Kven DEMONYM Norwegian ( Nordmann ) GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy • MONARCH Harald V Glücksburg • PRIME MINISTER Erna Solberg
Erna Solberg
• PRESIDENT OF THE STORTING Olemic Thommessen
Olemic Thommessen
• CHIEF JUSTICE Toril Marie Øie LEGISLATURE Storting
Storting
HISTORY • STATE ESTABLISHED PRIOR UNIFICATION 872 • NORWEGIAN EMPIRE (GREATEST INDEP
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Nordic Countries
The NORDIC COUNTRIES or the NORDIC are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic , where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North"). They consist of Denmark
Denmark
, Finland
Finland
, Iceland
Iceland
, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
, including Greenland and Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
—which are both constituent countries within the Kingdom of Denmark—and the Åland Islands . The population of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
are mainly Scandinavian or Finnish , with Greenlandic Inuit
Inuit
and the Sami people as indigenous minorities, since Scandinavians comprise over three quarters of the region's population and is thus the largest group by far
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