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Culture Of Iceland
The CULTURE OF ICELAND is rich and varied as well as being known for its literary heritage which began in the 12th century. Other Icelandic traditional arts include weaving , silversmithing , and wood carving . The Reykjavík
Reykjavík
area has several professional theatres, a symphony orchestra, an opera, and a large number of art galleries, bookstores, cinemas, and museums. There are also four active folk dance ensembles in Iceland. Iceland's literacy rate is among the highest in the world, and a love of literature , art , chess , and other intellectual pursuits is widespread. Iceland
Iceland
is the size of Ohio. CONTENTS* 1 Arts * 1.1 Architecture * 1.2 Literature * 1.3 Painting and sculpture * 2 Attitudes and customs * 3 Cuisine * 4 Education * 5 Entertainment * 5.1 Technology * 6 Icelandic people * 7 Language * 8 Leisure * 9 Music * 10 Religion * 11 Tourism * 12 Transport * 13 See also * 14 References ARTSThe people of Iceland
Iceland
are famous for their prose and poetry , in particular the sagas and eddas . ARCHITECTURE Main article: Architecture of Iceland Icelandic architecture draws from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, and traditionally, was influenced by the lack of native trees on the island. As a result, grass and turf -covered houses were developed
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Weaving
WEAVING is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth . Other methods are knitting , felting , and braiding or plaiting . The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. (_Weft_ or _woof_ is an old English word meaning "that which is woven". ) The method in which these threads are inter woven affects the characteristics of the cloth. Cloth is usually woven on a loom , a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth (warp threads with a weft thread winding between) can also be made using other methods, including tablet weaving , back-strap, or other techniques without looms. The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave , satin weave , or twill . Woven cloth can be plain (in one colour or a simple pattern), or can be woven in decorative or artistic design
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Silversmithing
A SILVERSMITH is a craftsman who crafts objects from silver . The terms "silversmith" and "goldsmith " are not exactly synonyms as the techniques, training, history, and guilds are or were largely the same but the end product may vary greatly as may the scale of objects created. However most goldsmiths have also worked in silver although the reverse may not be the case. Silversmithing is the art of turning silver sheet metal into hollow ware (dishes , bowls , porringers , cups , candlesticks , vases , ewers , urns , etc.), flatware (silverware), and other articles of household silver , church plate or sculpture. It may also include the making of jewelry . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Tools, materials and techniques * 3 Related and overlapping trades * 4 Canadian observations * 5 Notable and historical silversmiths * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Paul Revere
Paul Revere
with a silver teapot and some of his engraving tools. In the ancient Near East the value of silver to gold being less, allowed a silversmith to produce objects and store these as stock. Ogden states that according to an edict written by Diocletian in 301 A.D., a silversmith was able to charge 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 denarii for material produce (per Roman pound). At that time, guilds of silversmiths formed to arbitrate disputes, protect its members welfare and educate the public of the trade
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Wood Carving
WOOD CARVING is a form of woodworking by means of a cutting tool (knife) in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine , or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. The phrase may also refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery . The making of sculpture in wood has been extremely widely practiced , but survives much less well than the other main materials such as stone and bronze , as it is vulnerable to decay, insect damage, and fire. It therefore forms an important hidden element in the art history of many cultures. Outdoor wood sculptures do not last long in most parts of the world, so it is still unknown how the totem pole tradition developed. Many of the most important sculptures of China and Japan in particular are in wood, and so are the great majority of African sculpture and that of Oceania
Oceania
and other regions. Wood
Wood
is light and can take very fine detail so it is highly suitable for masks and other sculpture intended to be worn or carried. It is also much easier to work on than stone
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Reykjavík
REYKJAVíK (/ˈreɪkjəvɪk, -viːk/ RAYK-yə-vik , RAYK-yə-veek ; Icelandic: ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of Iceland . It has a latitude of 64°08' N, making it the world\'s northernmost capital of a sovereign state, and is a popular tourist destination. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxa Bay . With a population of around 123 300 (and over 216 940 in the Capital Region ), it is the heart of Iceland's cultural , economic and governmental activity. Reykjavík
Reykjavík
is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, which, according to Ingólfur Arnarson , was established in AD 874. Until the 19th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew steadily over the next decades, as it transformed into a regional and later national centre of commerce , population, and governmental activities. It is among the cleanest, greenest, and safest cities in the world
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List Of Countries By Literacy Rate
This is a LIST OF COUNTRIES BY LITERACY RATE. The figures represented are almost entirely collected by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) on behalf of UNESCO with 2015 estimates based on people aged 15 or over who can read and write. Where data is taken from a different source, notes are provided. The data is collated by mostly using surveys within the last ten years which are self-declared by the persons in question. UIS provide estimates based on these for the year 2015 with a Global Age-specific Literacy Projections Model (GALP). The global literacy rate for all people aged 15 and above is 86.3%. The global literacy rate for all males is 90.0% and the rate for all females is 82.7%. The rate varies throughout the world with developed nations having a rate of 99.2% (2013); Oceania having 71.3%; South and West Asia having 70.2% (2015) and sub-Saharan Africa at 64.0% (2015). Over 75% of the world's 781 million illiterate adults are found in South Asia , West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and women represent almost two-thirds of all illiterate adults globally
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Icelandic Literature
ICELANDIC LITERATURE refers to literature written in Iceland
Iceland
or by Icelandic people. It is best known for the sagas written in medieval times, starting in the 13th century
13th century
. As Icelandic and Old Norse are almost the same, and because Icelandic works constitute most of Old Norse literature, Old Norse literature is often wrongly considered a subset of Icelandic literature. However, works by Norwegians are present in the standard reader Sýnisbók íslenzkra bókmennta til miðrar átjándu aldar, compiled by Sigurður Nordal on the grounds that the language was the same. CONTENTS* 1 Early Icelandic literature
Icelandic literature
* 1.1 The Eddas * 1.2 Skaldic poetry * 1.3 Sagas * 2 Middle Icelandic literature
Icelandic literature
* 3 Modern Icelandic literature
Icelandic literature
* 3.1 Literary revival * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY ICELANDIC LITERATUREThe medieval Icelandic literature
Icelandic literature
is usually divided into three parts: * Eddic poetry * Sagas * Skaldic poetry THE EDDAS Main article: Edda There has been some discussion on the probable etymology of the term “Edda”
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Icelandic Art
ICELANDIC ART has been built on northern European traditions of the nineteenth century, but developed in distinct directions in the twentieth century, influenced in particular by the unique Icelandic landscape as well as by Icelandic mythology and culture . CONTENTS * 1 Origins of contemporary Icelandic visual art * 2 Landscape painting * 3 The emergence of abstract art * 4 The return of figurative art * 5 Icelandic art from the late twentieth century * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Reading * 8 External links ORIGINS OF CONTEMPORARY ICELANDIC VISUAL ART Þingvellir by Þórarinn B. Þorláksson , Iceland's first contemporary artist Contemporary Icelandic painting is typically traced to the work of Þórarinn Þorláksson , who, following formal training in art in the 1890s in Copenhagen , returned to Iceland to paint and exhibit works from 1900 to his death in 1924, almost exclusively portraying the Icelandic landscape. Þorláksson was not the only Icelandic artist learning in Denmark at that time: there were several Icelanders, both men and women, at the Academy in the closing years of the century, and these included Ásgrímur Jónsson , who together with Þorláksson created a distinctive portrayal of their home country's landscape in a romantic naturalistic style
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Chess
CHESS is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard , a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Each player begins with 16 pieces : one king , one queen , two rooks , two knights , two bishops , and eight pawns . Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn. The objective is to _checkmate _ the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by voluntary resignation of the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost or checkmate appears unavoidable. A game can also in several ways end in a draw . Chess is believed to have originated in India sometime before the 7th century, being derived from the Indian game chaturanga , which is also the likely ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi , janggi , and shogi . (A minority view holds that chess originated in China.) The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the rules were finally standardized in the 19th century. The first generally recognized World Chess Champion , Wilhelm Steinitz , claimed his title in 1886
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Prose
PROSE is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure , rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry . Where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme, the common unit of prose is purely grammatical, such as a sentence or paragraph. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Etymology * 3 Origins * 4 Structure * 5 Types * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BACKGROUNDThere are critical debates on the construction of prose: "... the distinction between verse and prose is clear, the distinction between poetry and prose is obscure". Prose in its simplicity and loosely defined structure is broadly adaptable to spoken dialogue, factual discourse, and to topical and fictional writing. It is systematically produced and published within literature , journalism (including newspapers , magazines , and broadcasting ), encyclopedias , film , history , philosophy , law , and in almost all forms and processes requiring human communications. ETYMOLOGYThe word "prose" first appears in English in the 14th century. It is derived from the Old French _prose_, which in turn originates in the Latin expression _prosa oratio_ (literally, straightforward or direct speech)
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Poetry
POETRY (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, _poiesis _, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language —such as phonaesthetics , sound symbolism , and metre —to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning . Poetry
Poetry
has a long history , dating back to the Sumerian _Epic of Gilgamesh _. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese _ Shijing
Shijing
_, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit _ Vedas
Vedas
_, Zoroastrian _ Gathas _, and the Homeric epics, the _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and the _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle
Aristotle
's _ Poetics _, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric , drama , song and comedy . Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme , and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language. Poetry
Poetry
uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses
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Sagas
SAGAS are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, about early Viking
Viking
voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, about migration to Iceland
Iceland
and of feuds between Icelandic families. They were written in the Old Norse language, mainly in Iceland
Iceland
. The texts are tales in prose which share some similarities with the epic , often with stanzas or whole poems in alliterative verse embedded in the text, of heroic deeds of days long gone, "tales of worthy men," who were often Vikings
Vikings
, sometimes pagan , sometimes Christian . The tales are usually realistic, except legendary sagas , sagas of saints, sagas of bishops and translated or recomposed romances. They are sometimes romanticised and fantastic. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Classification * 2.1 Other * 3 Contemporary usage * 4 See also * 5 References and notes * 6 Sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BACKGROUND Excerpt from Njáls saga in the Möðruvallabók
Möðruvallabók
(AM 132 folio 13r) c. 1350. The term saga originates from the Norse saga (pl. sögur), and refers to (1) "what is said, statement" or (2) "story, tale, history". It is cognate with the English word saw (as in old saw), and the German Sage
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Eddas
"EDDA" (/ˈɛdə/ ; Old Norse Edda, plural Eddur) is an Old Norse term that has been attributed by modern scholars to the collective of two Medieval Icelandic literary works: what is now known as the Prose Edda and an older collection of poems without an original title now known as the Poetic Edda . The term historically referred only to the Prose Edda, but this sense has fallen out of use because of the confusion with the other work. Both works were written down in Iceland during the 13th century in Icelandic, although they contain material from earlier traditional sources, reaching into the Viking Age . The books are the main sources of medieval skaldic tradition in Iceland and Norse mythology . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 The Poetic Edda * 3 The Prose Edda * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThere are several theories concerning the origins of the word edda. One theory holds that it is identical to a word that means "great-grandmother" appearing in the Eddic poem Rígsþula. Another theory holds that edda derives from Old Norse óðr, "poetry". A third, proposed in 1895 by Eiríkr Magnússon, is that it derives from the Icelandic place name Oddi , site of the church and school where students, including Snorri Sturluson , were educated
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Architecture Of Iceland
The ARCHITECTURE OF ICELAND draws from Scandinavian influences and, traditionally, was influenced by the lack of native trees on the island. As a result, grass - and turf -covered houses were developed. Later on, the Swiss chalet style
Swiss chalet style
became a prevailing influence in Icelandic architecture as many timber buildings were constructed in this way. Stone and later concrete were popular building materials, the latter especially with the arrival of functionalism in the country. Contemporary architecture in Iceland
Iceland
is influenced by many sources, with styles varying greatly around the country. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Turf houses * 1.2 Medieval age * 1.3 Stone buildings * 1.4 Urbanization arrives * 1.5 20th century and continuing urbanisation * 1.6 Contemporary architecture * 2 Style * 3 See also * 3.1 Notable buildings * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYTURF HOUSES Main article: Icelandic turf houses Glaumbær at Skagafjordur Folk Museum The original turf houses constructed by the original settlers of Iceland
Iceland
(from the west coast of Norway
Norway
) were based on Viking longhouses (langhús). The exterior turf walls were lined internally with a wooden frame, which was then panelled, with the roof resting on two rows of pillars dividing the internal space
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Scandinavia
SCANDINAVIA /ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages . In English usage, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
sometimes refers to the area known as the Scandinavian Peninsula . The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
always includes the three kingdoms of Denmark
Denmark
, Norway
Norway
, and Sweden
Sweden
. The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland , an overseas territory of Denmark. However, the Faroe Islands , also a Danish overseas territory, are sometimes included, as sometimes are Iceland
Iceland
, Finland
Finland
, and the Finnish autonomous region of the Åland Islands , because of their historical association with the Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian peoples and languages. This looser definition almost equates to that of the Nordic countries . In the local languages, Skandinavia/Skandinavien often means the European parts of Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden, whereas the name Norden is more commonly used for the extended region that includes Finland, Iceland, and overseas