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Culicoidea
The Culicoidea
Culicoidea
are a superfamily within the order Diptera. The following families are included within the Culicoidea: Dixidae
Dixidae
– meniscus midges Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
– frog-biting midges Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
– phantom midges Culicidae
Culicidae
– mosquitoesReferences[edit]McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M. Wood
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Culiseta Longiareolata
Culiseta longiareolata is a species of mosquito. Distribution[edit] This species can be found in the following countries:[2]Albania Botswana Bulgaria Cyprus Djibouti Egypt Ethiopia France Greece Hungary India Iran Iraq Israel Italy Jordan Lebanon Lesotho Mauritania Morocco Namibia Pakistan Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Somalia South Africa Spain Sudan Syria Tajikistan Tunisia Turkey Ukraine YemenReferences[edit]^ "BioLib - Culiseta longiareolata". Biolib.cz. Retrieved 2010-07-30.  ^ (Macquart). "Systematic Catalog of Culicidae - Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit - CULISETA longiareolata"
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two.[2] Consider a particular species, the red fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: the next rank above, the genus Vulpes, comprises all the "true" foxes
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Endopterygota
Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera
Neoptera
that go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. They undergo a radical metamorphosis, with the larval and adult stages differing considerably in their structure and behaviour. This is called holometabolism, or complete metamorphism. The Endopterygota
Endopterygota
are among the most diverse insect superorders, with about 850,000 living species divided between 11 orders, containing insects such as butterflies, flies, fleas, bees, ants, and beetles.[1] They are distinguished from the Exopterygota
Exopterygota
(or Hemipterodea) by the way in which their wings develop. Endopterygota
Endopterygota
(meaning literally "internal winged forms") develop wings inside the body and undergo an elaborate metamorphosis involving a pupal stage
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Neoptera
Neoptera
Neoptera
is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.Contents1 Classification 2 Phylogeny 3 References 4 External linksClassification[edit] The taxon Neoptera
Neoptera
was proposed by А.М
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Pterygota
For alternative classifications and fossil orders, see text.The Pterygota
Pterygota
are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution).[1] The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha
Archaeognatha
(jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma
Zygentoma
(silverfishes and firebrats), two primitively wingless insect orders
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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Insect
See text.SynonymsEctognatha EntomidaInsects or Insecta (from Latin
Latin
insectum) are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As used here, the term is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Ptychopteridae
Ptychoptera Bittacomorpha BittacomorphellaThe Ptychopteridae, phantom crane flies, are a small family (three extant genera) of nematocerous Diptera. Superficially similar in appearance to other "tipuloid" families, they lack the ocelli of the Trichoceridae, the five-branched radial vein of the Tanyderidae, and the two anal veins that reach the wing margins of the Tipulidae. They are usually allied with the Tanyderidae based on similarities of the mesonotal suture, this group being called the Ptychopteromorpha.Contents1 Life history1.1 Egg 1.2 Larvae 1.3 Pupae 1.4 Adult2 Subfamilies 3 Species 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife history[edit] Egg[edit] Ptychoptera albimana (Paleartic) has a mean of 554 eggs laid. The shape is slightly arcuated, "curiously ornamented", and roughly 0.8 mm × 0.2 mm (0.0315 in × 0.0079 in)
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Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(sometimes spelled Cecidomyidae[1]) is a family of flies known as gall midges or gall gnats. As the name implies, the larvae of most gall midges feed within plant tissue, creating abnormal plant growths called galls.A cecidomyiid laying eggs on grassPlay mediaCecidomyiid in copula Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
are very fragile small insects usually only 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) in length; many are less than 1 mm (0.039 in) long. They are characterised by hairy wings, unusual in the order Diptera, and have long antennae
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Bolitophila
Bolitophila
Bolitophila
is the sole genus in the Bolitophilidae, a family of Diptera, with around 40 Palaearctic
Palaearctic
and about 20 Nearctic
Nearctic
species, and three species from the Oriental region (Taiwan).[1][2] They are small (6–9 mm.)Schematic representation of the wing veins in the sub Bolitophila (above) and Cliopisa (below). Note the different termination of R 4 in the two subgenera. Legenda: Pt: pterostigma; C: costa; Sc: subcosta; R: radio; M: media; Cu: cubitus; A: anal; h: humeral; r-m: radio-medial; m-cu: medio-cubital.Conformation of the wing-veins in the subgenus BolitophilaContents1 Biology 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksBiology[edit] The larvae of Bolitophila
Bolitophila
are mycetophagous and live in decaying wood or other organic debris overgrown by fungal plant substrates. Pupation takes place inside the fungal mycelium in soil or litter
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Diadocidiidae
The Diadocidiidae are a family of flies (Diptera). Two genera with over 20 species are described.[2][3] Diadocidiidae are found worldwide, except in Africa
Africa
and Antarctica. They are usually considered close to the Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae, and Ditomyiidae,[4] and used to be included in the Mycetophilidae. They are woodland flies. The larvae spin silken tubes under bark or in dead logs. References[edit]^ Blagoderov, V. & Grimaldi, D.A. Fossil Sciaroidea
Sciaroidea
(Diptera) in Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Ambers, Exclusive of Cecidomyiidae, Sciaridae, and Keroplatidae. American Museum Novitates 3433 (2004) ^ Jaschhof, M., Jaschhof,C. On the genus Diadocidia (Diptera, Sciaroidea, Diadocidiidae) in Costa Rica. Zootaxa 1586: 33–38 (2007) ^ Jaschhof, M., Jaschhof,C. On the genus Diadocidia (Diptera, Sciaroidea, Diadocidiidae) in Australia
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Ditomyiidae
The Ditomyiidae
Ditomyiidae
are a small (90 species) family of flies (Diptera).They are found worldwide (except in the Afrotropical Region), most species are found in the Australasian and Neotropical realms.[1] There are only two genera in Europe Ditomyia Winnertz, 1846 and Symmerus Walker, 1848 [2][3] Ditomyia is found in Central Europe Symmerus in Northern Europe Symmerus is endemic to the Palaearctic.[4]Wing detailGenera[edit]Asioditomyia Australosymmerus Calliceratomyia Ditomyia Neocrionisca Nervijuncta Rhipidita SymmerusReferences[edit]^ Matile Family Ditomyiidae. ^ .Øivind Gammelmo & Eirik Rindal, 2006 On the family Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Sciaroidea) in Norway Norw. J. Entomol. 53, 47-49, 22 May 2006 pdf ^ Fauna Europaea ^ Munroe, D.D. 1974. The systematics, phylogeny, and zoogeography of Symmerus Walker and Australosymmerus Freeman (Diptera: Mycetophilidae: Ditomyiinae). Mem. entomol. soc.Can. 92. 1 – 183
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