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Cucurbitacins
Cucurbitacin
Cucurbitacin
is any of a class of biochemical compounds that some plants — notably members of the family Cucurbitaceae, which includes the common pumpkins and gourds — produce and which function as a defence against herbivores. Cucurbitacins are chemically classified as steroids, formally derived from cucurbitane, a triterpene hydrocarbon—specifically, from the unsaturated variant cucurbita-5-ene, or 19-(10→9β)-abeo-10α-lanost-5-ene
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Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.[1] By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life
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Cucurbitacin D
Cucurbitacin D
Cucurbitacin D
is a plant steroid with anticancer activity. External links[edit] Cucurbitacin D
Cucurbitacin D
induces growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cellsThis organic chemistry article is a stub
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Transcription Factors, General
General transcription factors (GTFs), also known as basal transcriptional factors, are a class of protein transcription factors that bind to specific sites (promoter) on DNA
DNA
to activate transcription of genetic information from DNA
DNA
to messenger RNA
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Operon
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA
DNA
containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.[1] The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.e. several strands of mRNA that each encode a single gene product. The result of this is that the genes contained in the operon are either expressed together or not at all
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Thalianol Synthase
Thalianol synthase (EC 5.4.99.31, (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene mutase (cyclizing, thalianol-forming)) is an enzyme with systematic name (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene mutase (cyclizing, thalianol-forming).[1] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction(3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons thalianolReferences[edit]^ Fazio, G.C., Xu, R. and Matsuda, S.P.T. (2004). "Genome mining to identify new plant triterpenoids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126: 5678–5679. doi:10.1021/ja0318784
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Arabidopsis
See text Arabidopsis
Arabidopsis
(rockcress) is a genus in the family Brassicaceae. They are small flowering plants related to cabbage and mustard. This genus is of great interest since it contains thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), one of the model organisms used for studying plant biology and the first plant to have its entire genome sequenced. Changes in thale cress are easily observed, making it a very useful model.Contents1 Status 2 List of species and subspecies 3 Cytogenetics 4 Reclassified species 5 Sources 6 ReferencesStatus[edit] Currently, the genus Arabidopsis
Arabidopsis
has nine species and a further eight subspecies recognised. This delimitation is quite recent and is based on morphological and molecular phylogenies by O'Kane and Al-Shehbaz (1997, 2003) and others. Their findings confirm the species formerly included in Arabidopsis made it polyphyletic
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Homology (biology)
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa. A common example of homologous structures is the forelimbs of vertebrates, where the wings of bats, the arms of primates, the front flippers of whales and the forelegs of dogs and horses are all derived from the same ancestral tetrapod structure. Evolutionary biology
Evolutionary biology
explains homologous structures adapted to different purposes as the result of descent with modification from a common ancestor. Homology was explained by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in 1859, but had been observed before this, from Aristotle onwards, and it was explicitly analysed by Pierre Belon in 1555
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Cucurbita Pepo
Cucurbita
Cucurbita
pepo is a cultivated plant of the genus Cucurbita. It yields varieties of winter squash and pumpkin, but the most widespread varieties belong to Cucurbita
Cucurbita
pepo subsp. pepo, called summer squash.[2] It has been domesticated in the New World for thousands of years.[3] Some authors maintain that C. pepo is derived from C. texana, while others suggest that C. texana is merely feral C. pepo.[4] They have a wide variety of uses, especially as a food source and for medical conditions. C. pepo seems more closely related to C. fraterna, though disagreements exist about the exact nature of that connection, too.[5]Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Cultivars 4 Uses 5 Gallery 6 References 7 External linksTaxonomy[edit] The morphological differences within the species C. pepo are so vast, its various subspecies and cultivars have been misidentified as totally separate species
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Cucumis
Cucumis
Cucumis
is a genus of twining, tendril-bearing plants in the Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
family which includes the cucumber ( Cucumis
Cucumis
sativus), muskmelons ( Cucumis
Cucumis
melo, including cantaloupe and honeydew), the horned melon ( Cucumis
Cucumis
metuliferus), and the West Indian gherkin ( Cucumis
Cucumis
anguria). 30 species occur in Africa, and 25 occur in India, Southeast Asia, and Australia.[1]Contents1 See also 2 References 3 Bibliography 4 External linksSee also[edit]Bailan melon Galia melon Hami melon Korean melon Santa Claus melon Sugar melon Winter melonReferences[edit]^ Sebastian et al. (2010); Telford et al. (2011)Bibliography[edit]Ghebretinsae, A. G., Thulin, M. & Barber, J. C
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Cucurbita Andreana
Cucurbita
Cucurbita
andreana is a plant species of the genus Cucurbita,[1][2] since 1982 in the rank of a C. maxima subspecies, C. maxima subsp. andreana, the wild relative of C. maxima subsp. maxima cultivated subspecies. It is native to Argentina
Argentina
and Uruguay. C. andreana fruits are smaller and not palatable, those of C. maxima (or C. maxima subsp. maxima) are bigger and palatable.[2] The species Cucurbita
Cucurbita
maxima originated in South America from wild C. andreana over 4,000 years ago.[3] The two species hybridize quite readily but have noticeably different calcium levels.[4] C. andreana has yellow flowers and bright green striped fruit. It prefers full sun and well drained soil. Extrafloral nectaries are present in C. maxima but not necessarily in C
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Trichosanthes Kirilowii
Trichosanthes
Trichosanthes
japonica Regel Trichosanthes
Trichosanthes
kirilowii is a flowering plant in the family Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
found particularly in Henan, Shandong, Hebei, Shanxi, and Shaanxi. It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it shares the name guālóu (Chinese: 栝楼) with the related T. rosthornii. It is known as "Chinese cucumber" and "Chinese snake gourd" in English.[note 1]Contents1 Traditional uses 2 Chemical components 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksTraditional uses[edit]This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed
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Basic Research
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.[1] Applied research, in turn, uses scientific theories to develop technology or techniques to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena
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Physocarpus
6-20, see textPhysocarpus, commonly called ninebark, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, native to North America (most species) and northeastern Asia (one species).Contents1 Description 2 Diversity2.1 Synonyms3 Propagation 4 Problems 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Physocarpus
Physocarpus
are deciduous shrubs with alternately arranged leaves. The leaves are palmate with 3 to 7 lobes and often toothed edges. The inflorescence is a cluster of bell-shaped flowers with 5 rounded white or pink petals and many stamens. The fruit is a flat or inflated dehiscent follicle.[3][4] The genus name Physocarpus
Physocarpus
comes from the Greek for "bladder fruit", referring to the inflated fruits of some species.[5] The common name ninebark refers to the peeling bark of mature branches, which comes away in strips.[6] P. opulifolius is cultivated as an ornamental plant
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Phormium Tenax
Phormium
Phormium
tenax (called flax in New Zealand
New Zealand
English; harakeke in Māori;
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Acanthosicyos Horridus
Acanthosicyos
Acanthosicyos
horridus is an unusual melon that occurs only in Namibia; it is locally called naras or nara.[1] It is a dioecious plant found in sand desert but not stony plains, in areas with access to ground water such as ephemeral rivers and paleochannels, where sand accumulating in the shelter of its stems can form hummocks up to 1000–1500 m2 in area and 4 meters in height. Its stems may rise more than a meter above the hummocks, while its system of thick taproots can extend up to 50 m downward.[2] The nara plant is leafless, so modified stems and spines 2–3 centimeters long serve as the photosynthetic "organs" of the plant.[1][3] The plant can survive many years without water.[2] Nara typically occurs in the absence of other vegetation due to the harshness of the climate,[2] though Eragrostis spinosa and Stipagrostis sabulicola grasses may grow between its hummocks
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