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Crystallization
Crystallization
Crystallization
is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal. Some of the ways by which crystals form are precipitating from a solution, melting, or more rarely deposition directly from a gas. Attributes of the resulting crystal depend largely on factors such as temperature, air pressure, and in the case of liquid crystals, time of fluid evaporation. Crystallization
Crystallization
occurs in two major steps. The first is nucleation, the appearance of a crystalline phase from either a supercooled liquid or a supersaturated solvent. The second step is known as crystal growth, which is the increase in the size of particles and leads to a crystal state
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Gemstone
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.[1][2] However, certain rocks (such as lapis lazuli, opal, and jade) or organic materials that are not minerals (such as amber, jet, and pearl) are also used for jewelry and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well. Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their luster or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone. Apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity engraved gems and hardstone carvings, such as cups, were major luxury art forms. A gem maker is called a lapidary or gemcutter; a diamond worker is a diamantaire
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Nucleation
Nucleation
Nucleation
is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization. Nucleation
Nucleation
is typically defined to be the process that determines how long an observer has to wait before the new phase or self-organized structure appears. For example, if a volume of water is cooled (at atmospheric pressure) below 0° C, it will tend to freeze into ice. Volumes of water cooled only a few degrees below 0° C often stay completely ice free for long periods of time. At these conditions, nucleation of ice is either slow or does not occur at all. However, at lower temperatures ice crystals appear after little or no delay. At these conditions ice nucleation is fast.[1][2] Nucleation
Nucleation
is commonly how first-order phase transitions start, and then it is the start of the process of forming a new thermodynamic phase
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Geological Time Scale
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history
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Koch Snowflake
The Koch snowflake
Koch snowflake
(also known as the Koch curve, Koch star, or Koch island[1]) is a mathematical curve and one of the earliest fractal curves to have been described. It is based on the Koch curve, which appeared in a 1904 paper titled "On a continuous curve without tangents, constructible from elementary geometry" (original French title: Sur une courbe continue sans tangente, obtenue par une construction géométrique élémentaire)[2] by the Swedish mathematician Helge von Koch. The progression for the area of the snowflake converges to 8/5 times the area of the original triangle, while the progression for the snowflake's perimeter diverges to infinity
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Snowflake
A snowflake is a single ice crystal that has achieved a sufficient size, and may have amalgamated with others, then falls through the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as snow.[1][2][3] Each flake nucleates around a dust particle in supersaturated air masses by attracting supercooled cloud water droplets, which freeze and accrete in crystal form. Complex shapes emerge as the flake moves through differing temperature and humidity zones in the atmosphere, such that individual snowflakes differ in detail from one another, but may be categorized in eight broad classifications and at least 80 individual variants. The main constituent shapes for ice crystals, from which combinations may occur, are needle, column, plate, and rime. Snow
Snow
appears white in color despite being made of clear ice
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Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.[1] It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency.[2] For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats)
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Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer, historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius
Celsius
scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale
Fahrenheit scale
(°F), and the Kelvin
Kelvin
scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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Solvent
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell
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Citric Acid
Citric acid
Citric acid
is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C 6H 8O 7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent.[7] A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate
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Time-lapse
Time-lapse photography
Time-lapse photography
is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to view the sequence. When played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster and thus lapsing. For example, an image of a scene may be captured once every second, then played back at 30 frames per second; the result is an apparent 30 times speed increase. In a similar manner, film can also be played at a much lower rate than it was captured at, slowing down fast action, as slow motion or high-speed photography. Processes that would normally appear subtle to the human eye, e.g. the motion of the sun and stars in the sky or plant growth, become very pronounced. Time-lapse is the extreme version of the cinematography technique of undercranking
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Biochemical
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.[1] By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life
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Organic Compound
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary.[1] However, the traditional definition used by most chemists is limited to compounds containing a carbon-hydrogen bond. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds
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Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound,[1] usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. As of March 2018[update], there are more than 5,500 known mineral species;[2] 5,312 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).[3] Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals
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Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case
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