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Crowdfunding
CROWDFUNDING is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people. Crowdfunding
Crowdfunding
is a form of crowdsourcing and of alternative finance . In 2015, it was estimated that worldwide over US$34 billion was raised this way. Although the concept can also be executed through mail-order subscriptions, benefit events, and other methods, it is now often performed via Internet
Internet
-mediated registries. This modern crowdfunding model is generally based on three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded, individuals or groups who support the idea, and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea
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Crowdsourcing
CROWDSOURCING is a specific sourcing model in which individuals or organizations use contributions from Internet
Internet
users to obtain needed services or ideas. Crowdsourcing was coined in 2005 as a portmanteau of crowd and outsourcing . This mode of sourcing, which is to divide work between participants to achieve a cumulative result, was already successful prior to the digital age (i.e., "offline "). Crowdsourcing is distinguished from outsourcing in that the work can come from an undefined public (instead of being commissioned from a specific, named group) and in that crowdsourcing includes a mix of bottom-up and top-down processes. Advantages of using crowdsourcing may include improved costs, speed, quality, flexibility, scalability, or diversity
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Alternative Finance
ALTERNATIVE FINANCE refers to financial channels and instruments that have emerged outside of the traditional finance system such as regulated banks and capital markets. Examples of alternative financing activities through 'online marketplaces' are reward-based crowdfunding , equity crowdfunding , peer-to-peer consumer and business lending , invoice trading third party payment platforms. Alternative finance instruments include cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin
Bitcoin
, SME mini-bond , social impact bond , community shares, private placement and other 'shadow banking ' mechanisms. Alternative Finance differs to traditional banking or capital market finance through technology-enabled 'disintermediation', which means utilising third party capital by connecting fundraisers directly with funders, in turn, reducing transactional costs and improve market efficiency
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Internet
The INTERNET is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a _network of networks_ that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail , telephony , and file sharing . The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks
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Entrepreneurship
ENTREPRENEURSHIP is the process of designing, launching and running a new business , which is more often than not, initially a small business , offering a product, process or service for sale or hire. The people who create these businesses are called ENTREPRENEURS. Enterpreneurship has been described as the "capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit ". While definitions of entrepreneurship typically focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of businesses have to close, due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis – or a combination of all of these" or due to lack of market demand
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Social Entrepreneurship
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP is the use of the techniques by start up companies and other entrepreneurs to develop, fund and implement solutions to social, cultural, or environmental issues. This concept may be applied to a variety of organizations with different sizes, aims, and beliefs. For-profit entrepreneurs typically measure performance using business metrics like profit , revenues and increases in stock prices , but social entrepreneurs are either non-profits or blend for-profit goals with generating a positive "return to society" and therefore must use different metrics. Social entrepreneurship typically attempts to further broad social, cultural, and environmental goals often associated with the voluntary sector in areas such as poverty alleviation, health care and community development . At times, profit-making social enterprises may be established to support the social or cultural goals of the organization but not as an end in itself
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Auguste Comte
ISIDORE MARIE AUGUSTE FRANçOIS XAVIER COMTE (/ˈɪzədɔːr oʊˈɡuːst məˈriː frænˈsweɪ seɪvi.ər kɒəmˈteɪ/ ; 19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism . He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon , Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution
French Revolution
, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences . Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
, and George Eliot
George Eliot

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Praenumeration
PRAENUMERATION was an early form of the subscription business model. It was a common business practice in the 18th century book trade in Germany
Germany
. The publisher offered to sell a book that was planned but had not yet been printed, usually at a discount, so as to cover their costs in advance. The business practice was particularly common with magazines, helping to determine in advance how many subscribers there would be. For example, when Johann Heinrich Zedler
Johann Heinrich Zedler
decided to issue a collection of works of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
he advertised that the book would be for sale through Praenumeration at the Leipzig
Leipzig
Easter Fair in 1728, with the first volume to be available at the following Michaelmas
Michaelmas
Fair in early October. When the eleventh and final volume was issued in 1733, Zedler found himself in difficulty
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Subscription (finance)
SUBSCRIPTION refers to the process of investors signing up and committing to invest in a financial instrument, before the actual closing of the purchase. The term comes from the Latin
Latin
word subscribere. CONTENTS* 1 Historical * 1.1 Praenumeration * 2 New issues * 2.1 Subscription agreement * 2.2 Subscription period * 2.3 Allotment * 3 Oversubscription * 4 Oversubscription adjustment * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORICALPRAENUMERATIONAn early form was praenumeration , a common business practice in the 18th-century book trade in Germany. The publisher offered to sell a book that was planned but had not yet been printed, usually at a discount, so as to cover their costs in advance. The business practice was particularly common with magazines, helping to determine in advance how many subscribers there would be. Praenumeration is similar to the recent crowdfunding financing model
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War Bonds
WAR BONDS are debt securities issued by a government to finance military operations and other expenditure in times of war. In practice, modern governments finance war by putting additional money into circulation, and the function of the bonds is to remove money from circulation and help to control inflation . War bonds are either retail bonds marketed direct to the public or wholesale bonds traded on a stock market. Exhortations to buy war bonds are often accompanied by appeals to patriotism and conscience. Retail war bonds, like other retail bonds, tend to have a yield which is below that offered by the market and are often made available in a wide range of denominations to make them affordable for all citizens
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Bank Of England
The BANK OF ENGLAND, formally the GOVERNOR AND COMPANY OF THE BANK OF ENGLAND, is the central bank of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694, it is the second oldest central bank in operation today, after the Sveriges Riksbank . The Bank of England
England
is the world\'s 8th oldest bank . It was established to act as the English Government 's banker and is still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom . The Bank was privately owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946. In 1998, it became an independent public organisation, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor
Treasury Solicitor
on behalf of the government, with independence in setting monetary policy
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Cooperative Movement
The HISTORY OF THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT concerns the origins and history of cooperatives . Although cooperative arrangements, such as mutual insurance , and principles of cooperation existed long before, the cooperative movement began with the application of cooperative principles to business organization
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Statue Of Liberty
The STATUE OF LIBERTY (LIBERTY ENLIGHTENING THE WORLD; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island
Liberty Island
in New York Harbor
New York Harbor
in New York City
New York City
, in the United States . The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
and built by Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
is a figure of a robed woman representing Libertas
Libertas
, a Roman goddess . She holds a torch above her head, and in her left arm carries a tabula ansata inscribed in Roman numerals
Rom