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Crossbar Switch
In electronics , a CROSSBAR SWITCH (CROSS-POINT SWITCH, MATRIX SWITCH) is a collection of switches arranged in a matrix configuration. A crossbar switch has multiple input and output lines that form a crossed pattern of interconnecting lines between which a connection may be established by closing a switch located at each intersection, the elements of the matrix. Originally, a crossbar switch consisted literally of crossing metal bars that provided the input and output paths. Later implementations achieved the same switching topology in solid state semiconductor chips. The cross-point switch is one of the principal switch architectures, together with a rotary switch , memory switch, and a crossover switch
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Calling Feature
A VERTICAL SERVICE CODE (VSC) is a sequence of digits and the signals star (*) and number sign (#) dialed on a telephone keypad or rotary dial to enable or disable certain telephony service features. Some vertical service codes require the dialing of a Telephone number
Telephone number
after the code sequence. On a touch tone telephone, the codes are usually initiated with the star key , resulting in the commonly used name star codes. On rotary dial telephones the star is replaced by dialing 11. In North American
North American
telephony , VSCs were developed by AT&T Corp.
AT&T Corp.
as CUSTOM LOCAL AREA SIGNALING SERVICES (CLASS) codes, sometimes LASS, in the 1960s and 70s. Their use became ubiquitous throughout the 1990s and eventually became a recognized standard. As CLASS was an AT"> * ^ A B Code used for Cellular One service * ^ A B C Found in Pac Bell territory
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Electrical Connector
An ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR, is an electro-mechanical device used to join electrical terminations and create an electrical circuit . Electrical connectors consist of plugs (male-ended ) and jacks (female-ended ). The connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. An adapter can be used to effectively bring together dissimilar connectors. Hundreds of types of electrical connectors are manufactured for power, signal and control applications. Connectors may join two lengths of flexible copper wire or cable, or connect a wire or cable to an electrical terminal . In computing, an electrical connector can also be known as a PHYSICAL INTERFACE (compare physical layer in OSI model
OSI model
of networking)
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Electromagnet
An ELECTROMAGNET is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current . The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets usually consist of insulated wire wound into a coil . A current through the wire creates a magnetic field which is concentrated in the hole in the center of the coil. The wire turns are often wound around a magnetic core made from a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material such as iron ; the magnetic core concentrates the magnetic flux and makes a more powerful magnet. The main advantage of an electromagnet over a permanent magnet is that the magnetic field can be quickly changed by controlling the amount of electric current in the winding. However, unlike a permanent magnet that needs no power, an electromagnet requires a continuous supply of current to maintain the magnetic field
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Electronics
ELECTRONICS is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes , transistors , diodes , integrated circuits , optoelectronics , sensors etc. associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit . The science of electronics is also considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering . The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible, and electronics is widely used in information processing , telecommunication , and signal processing
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AT&T Corporation
AT&T CORP., originally the AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet
Internet
telecommunications and professional services to businesses , consumers , and government agencies. Founded in 1885 as the original American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company, it was at times the world's largest telephone company, the world's largest cable television operator, and a regulated monopoly . At its peak in the 1950s and 1960s, it employed one million people and the company revenue was roughly $3 billion annually. In 2005, AT&T was purchased by Baby Bell and former subsidiary SBC Communications for more than $16 billion ($19.6 billion in present-day terms ). SBC then changed its name to AT&T Inc
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Western Electric
WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY (WE, WECO) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT"> 1969 Western Electric medallion celebrating the 100-year anniversary of its founding Western Electric was the first company to join in a Japanese joint venture with foreign capital. In 1899, it invested in a 54% share of the Nippon Electric Company, Ltd. Western Electric's representative in Japan was Walter Tenney Carleton . In 1901, Western Electric secretly purchased a controlling interest in a principal competitor, the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company , but was later forced by a lawsuit to sell. On July 24, 1915, employees of the Hawthorne Works boarded the SS Eastland in downtown Chicago for a company picnic. The ship rolled over at the dock and over 800 people died
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Stepping Switch
In electrical controls, a STEPPING SWITCH or stepping relay , also known as a UNISELECTOR, is an electromechanical device that switches an input signal path to one of several possible output paths, directed by a train of electrical pulses. The major use of stepping switches was in early automatic telephone exchanges to route telephone calls . Later, they were often used in such equipment as industrial control systems. They were used in Japanese cypher machines during World War 2 , known to the Americans as CORAL , JADE , and PURPLE . Code breakers at Bletchley Park employed uniselectors driven by a continuously rotating motor rather than a series of pulses in the Bombe
Bombe
machines to cryptanalyse the German Enigma ciphers. In a uniselector, the stepping switch steps only on one axis, although there are often several sets of contacts in parallel
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Televerket (Sweden)
TELEVERKET, was a Swedish State authority acting as a state-owned corporation (public enterprise), responsible for telecommunications in Sweden
Sweden
between 1853-1993. Originally it was named KONGL. ELEKTRISKA TELEGRAF-WERKET (literally: Royal Electric Telegraph Agency), which was founded in 1853. Its name changed to KONGL. TELEGRAFVERKET in 1871, KUNGL. TELEGRAFVERKET in 1903, the prefix KUNGL. (English: Royal) was dropped in 1946 and the name was further modernised to TELEVERKET in 1953. Televerket continued on with its telecommunications monopoly until corporatisation in 1992-1993 when it was renamed Telia , now part of the TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera
corporation
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Wire
A WIRE is a single, usually cylindrical , flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals . Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate . Wire gauges come in various standard sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number . The term _wire_ is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in "multistranded wire", which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity. Wire comes in solid core, stranded, or braided forms. Although usually circular in cross-section, wire can be made in square, hexagonal, flattened rectangular, or other cross-sections, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers . Edge-wound coil springs , such as the Slinky toy, are made of special flattened wire
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Bell System
The BELL SYSTEM was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T , which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly . On December 31, 1983, the system was broken up into independent companies by a U.S. Justice Department mandate . The colloquial term MA BELL (as in "Mother Bell") was often used by the general public in the United States to refer to any aspect of this conglomerate, as it held a near-complete monopoly over telephone service in most areas of the country, and is still used by many to refer to any telephone company
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Hertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Common Control
In telecommunication , a COMMON CONTROL is an automatic telephone exchange arrangement in which the control equipment necessary for the establishment of connections is shared by being associated with a given call only during the period required to accomplish the control function for the given call. The first examples deployed on a major scale were the Director telephone system in London and the panel switch in the Bell System
Bell System
. Direct control telephone exchanges became rare in the 1960s, leaving only common control ones. Systems which have control subsystem as an integral part of the switching network itself were known as direct control switching systems. Systems in which the control subsytem is outside the switching network are known as Common control systems. Strowger exchanges are usually direct control systems, whereas crossbar, electronic exchanges including all stored program control systems are common control systems
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Digital Data
DIGITAL DATA, in information theory and information systems , are discrete, discontinuous representations of information or works, as contrasted with continuous, or analog signals which behave in a continuous manner, or represent information using a continuous function . Although digital representations are the subject matter of discrete mathematics , the information represented can be either discrete, such as numbers and letters , or it can be continuous, such as sounds, images, and other measurements. The word _digital_ comes from the same source as the words digit and _digitus_ (the Latin word for _finger _), as fingers are often used for discrete counting. Mathematician George Stibitz of Bell Telephone Laboratories used the word _digital_ in reference to the fast electric pulses emitted by a device designed to aim and fire anti-aircraft guns in 1942
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