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Crossbar Switch
In electronics , a CROSSBAR SWITCH (CROSS-POINT SWITCH, MATRIX SWITCH) is a collection of switches arranged in a matrix configuration. A crossbar switch has multiple input and output lines that form a crossed pattern of interconnecting lines between which a connection may be established by closing a switch located at each intersection, the elements of the matrix. Originally, a crossbar switch consisted literally of crossing metal bars that provided the input and output paths. Later implementations achieved the same switching topology in solid state semiconductor chips. The cross-point switch is one of the principal switch architectures, together with a rotary switch , memory switch, and a crossover switch . CONTENTS * 1 General properties * 2 Applications * 3 Implementations * 3.1 Mechanical * 3.2 Electromechanical switching in telephony * 3.3 Instrumentation * 3.4 Telephone
Telephone
exchange * 3.5 Semiconductor * 4 Arbitration * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links GENERAL PROPERTIESA crossbar switch is an assembly of individual switches between a set of inputs and a set of outputs. The switches are arranged in a matrix. If the crossbar switch has M inputs and N outputs, then a crossbar has a matrix with M × N cross-points or places where the connections cross. At each crosspoint is a switch; when closed, it connects one of the inputs to one of the outputs
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Electronics
ELECTRONICS is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes , transistors , diodes , integrated circuits , optoelectronics , sensors etc. associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit . The science of electronics is also considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering . The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible, and electronics is widely used in information processing , telecommunication , and signal processing . The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards , electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed components into a regular working system
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Switch
In electrical engineering , a SWITCH is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit , interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The mechanism of a switch removes or restores the conducting path in a circuit when it is operated. It may be operated manually, for example, a light switch or a keyboard button, may be operated by a moving object such as a door, or may be operated by some sensing element for pressure, temperature or flow. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Contacts * 2.1 Contact terminology * 2.2 Contact bounce * 2.3 Arcs and quenching * 2.4 Power switching * 2.5 Inductive loads * 2.6 Incandescent loads * 2.7 Wetting current * 3 Actuator
Actuator
* 3.1 Biased switches * 3.2 Rotary switch * 3.3 Toggle switch * 4 Special
Special
types * 4.1 Mercury tilt switch * 4.2 Knife switch * 4.3 Footswitch * 4.4 Reversing switch * 5 Light switches * 6 Electronic switches * 7 Other switches * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DESCRIPTION Electrical switches. Top, left to right: circuit breaker, mercury switch , wafer switch, DIP switch , surface mount switch, reed switch . Bottom, left to right: wall switch (U.S. style), miniature toggle switch, in‑line switch, push-button switch, rocker switch, microswitch
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Rotary Switch
A ROTARY SWITCH is a switch operated by rotation. These are often chosen when more than 2 positions are needed, such as a three-speed fan or a CB radio with multiple frequencies of reception or "channels". Three-deck rotary switch allows controlling three different circuit functions Bottom view of a 12-position rotary switch showing wiper and contacts. A rotary switch consists of a spindle or "rotor" that has a contact arm or "spoke" which projects from its surface like a cam. It has an array of terminals, arranged in a circle around the rotor, each of which serves as a contact for the "spoke" through which any one of a number of different electrical circuits can be connected to the rotor. The switch is layered to allow the use of multiple poles, each layer is equivalent to one pole. Usually such a switch has a detent mechanism so it "clicks" from one active position to another rather than stalls in an intermediate position. Thus a rotary switch provides greater pole and throw capabilities than simpler switches do. Rotary switches were used as channel selectors on television receivers until the early 1970s, as range selectors on electrical metering equipment, as band selectors on multi-band radios, etc
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Crossover Switch
In electronics , a CROSSOVER SWITCH or MATRIX SWITCH is a switch connecting multiple inputs to multiple outputs using complex array matrices designed to switch any one input path to any one (or more) output path(s). There are blocking and non-blocking types of cross-over switches. These switches can be microelectromechanical systems , electrical, or optical non-linear optics , and are used in electronics and fiber optic circuits, as well as some optical computers . A banyan switch is one type of cross-over switch. Their complexity depends on the topology of the individual switches in a switch matrix (how wide it is by how many 'plies' or layers of switches it takes), to implement the desired crossover logic. Typical crossover matrices follow the formula: an N×N Banyan switch uses (N/2) log N elements. Other formulas are used for differing number of cross-over layers and scaling is possible, but becomes very large and complex with large N×N arrays. CAD and AI can be used to take the drudgery out of these designs. The switches are measured by how many stages, and how many up/down sorters and crosspoints. Switches often have buffers built in to speed up switching speeds. A typical switch may have a 2×2 and 4×4 down sorter, followed by an 8×8 up sorter, followed by a 2×2 crosspoint Banyan switch network, resulting in a 3 level sorting for a 3-stage banyan network switch
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Telephony
TELEPHONY (/təˈlɛfəni/ _tə-LEF-ə-nee_ ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties. The history of telephony is intimately linked to the invention and development of the telephone . Telephony is commonly referred to as the construction or operation of telephones and telephonic systems and as a system of telecommunications in which telephonic equipment is employed in the transmission of speech or other sound between points, with or without the use of wires. The term is also used frequently to refer to computer hardware, software, and computer network systems, that perform functions traditionally performed by telephone equipment. In this context the technology is specifically referred to as Internet telephony, or voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Digital telephony * 2.1 Milestones in digital telephony * 3 IP telephony * 4 Social impact research * 5 See also * 6 References OVERVIEWThe first telephones were connected directly in pairs. Each user had a separate telephone wired to the locations he might wish to reach. This quickly became inconvenient and unmanageable when people wanted to communicate with more than a few people
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Circuit Switching
CIRCUIT SWITCHING is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit ) through the network before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the communication session . The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit. The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network . When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts. Circuit switching
Circuit switching
contrasts with packet switching which divides the data to be transmitted into packets transmitted through the network independently. In packet switching, instead of being dedicated to one communication session at a time, network links are shared by packets from multiple competing communication sessions, resulting in the loss of the quality of service guarantees that are provided by circuit switching. In circuit switching, the bit delay is constant during a connection, as opposed to packet switching, where packet queues may cause varying and potentially indefinitely long packet transfer delays
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Sorting Machine
A CASH SORTER MACHINE is a machine used for sorting banknotes . Primary users are banks , financial institutions , casinos , and large theme parks . SEE ALSO * Currency-counting machine * Banknote counter This money or currency-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This bank and insurance -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cash_sorter_machine additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Semiconductor Memory
SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY is an electronic data storage device , often used as computer memory , implemented on a semiconductor -based integrated circuit . There are many different types of implementations using various technologies. Most types of semiconductor memory have the property of random access , which means that it takes the same amount of time to access any memory location, so data can be efficiently accessed in any random order. This contrasts with data storage media such as hard disks and CDs which read and write data consecutively and therefore the data can only be accessed in the same sequence it was written. Semiconductor memory also has much faster access times than other types of data storage; a byte of data can be written to or read from semiconductor memory within a few nanoseconds , while access time for rotating storage such as hard disks is in the range of milliseconds. For these reasons it is used for main computer memory (primary storage), to hold data the computer is currently working on, among other uses. Shift registers , processor registers , data buffers and other small digital registers that have no memory address decoding mechanism are not considered as memory although they also store digital data. DESCRIPTIONIn a semiconductor memory chip, each bit of binary data is stored in a tiny circuit called a memory cell consisting of one to several transistors . The memory cells are laid out in rectangular arrays on the surface of the chip
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Fusible Link
FUSIBLE LINKS include mechanical and electrical devices. A mechanical fusible link is a device consisting of two strips of metal soldered together with a fusible alloy that is designed to melt at a specific temperature, thus allowing the two pieces to separate. Mechanical fusible links are utilized as the triggering device in fire sprinkler systems and mechanical automatic door release mechanisms that close fire doors in warehouses, etc. Some high-security safes also utilize fusible link-based relockers as a defense against torches and heat-producing tools. Mechanical fusible links come in a variety of designs and different temperature ratings. An electrical fusible link is a type of electrical fuse that is constructed simply with a short piece of wire typically four American wire gauge sizes smaller than the wire that is being protected. For example, an AWG 16 fusible link might be used to protect AWG 12 wiring. Electrical fusible links are common in high-current automotive applications. The wire in an electrical fusible link is encased in high-temperature fire-resistant insulation to reduce hazards when the wire melts
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Programmable Read-only Memory
A PROGRAMMABLE READ-ONLY MEMORY (PROM) or FIELD PROGRAMMABLE READ-ONLY MEMORY (FPROM) or ONE-TIME PROGRAMMABLE NON-VOLATILE MEMORY (OTP NVM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse . It is one type of ROM (read-only memory ). The data in them is permanent and cannot be changed. PROMs are used in digital electronic devices to store permanent data, usually low level programs such as firmware (microcode ). The key difference from a standard ROM is that the data is written into a ROM during manufacture, while with a PROM the data is programmed into them after manufacture. Thus, ROMs tend to be used only for large production runs with well-verified data, while PROMs are used to allow companies to test on a subset of the devices in an order before burning data into all of them. PROMs are manufactured blank and, depending on the technology, can be programmed at wafer, final test, or in system. Blank PROM chips are programmed by plugging them into a device called a PROM programmer. The availability of this technology allows companies to keep a supply of blank PROMs in stock, and program them at the last minute to avoid large volume commitment
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Sports Bar
A BAR (also known as a SALOON or a TAVERN or sometimes a PUB or CLUB, referring to the actual establishment, as in PUB BAR or SAVAGE CLUB etc.) is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages , such as beer , wine , liquor , cocktails , and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and often sell snack foods such as crisps (potato chips ) or peanuts , for consumption on premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may also serve food from a restaurant menu. The term "bar" also refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. Bars provide stools or chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are often referred to as music bars, live venues, or nightclubs. Types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars to elegant places of entertainment often accompanying restaurants for dining. Many bars have a discount period, designated a "happy hour " to encourage off-peak-time patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink purchase requirement during their peak hours. Bars may have bouncers to ensure patrons are of legal age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons, and to collect cover charges. Such bars often feature entertainment, which may be a live band , vocalist , comedian , or disc jockey playing recorded music. The term "bar" is derived from the specialized counter on which drinks are served
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Ethernet
ETHERNET /ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 , and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as token ring , FDDI and ARCNET . The original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium , while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches . Over the course of its history, Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the latest 100 gigabits per second (Gbit/s). The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames . Each frame contains source and destination addresses, and error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded; most often, higher-layer protocols trigger retransmission of lost frames. As per the OSI model , Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer
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RS-232
In telecommunications , RS-232
RS-232
is a standard for serial communication transmission of data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a _DTE_ (_data terminal equipment _) such as a computer terminal , and a _DCE_ (_data circuit-terminating equipment _ or _data communication equipment _), such as a modem . The RS-232
RS-232
standard is commonly used in computer serial ports . The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. The current version of the standard is _TIA-232-F Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange_, issued in 1997. An RS-232
RS-232
serial port was once a standard feature of a personal computer , used for connections to modems , printers , mice , data storage, uninterruptible power supplies , and other peripheral devices. However, RS-232, when compared to other serial interfaces such as RS-422, RS-485 and Ethernet
Ethernet
, is hampered by low transmission speed, short maximum cable length, large voltage swing, large standard connectors, no multipoint capability and limited multidrop capability. In modern personal computers, USB
USB
has displaced RS-232
RS-232
from most of its peripheral interface roles
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AMX LLC
AMX (formerly AMX, LLC) is an American manufacturer of video switching and control devices. It is currently owned by Harman International Industries and is part of the Harman Professional Division. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Company growth * 3 System layout * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OVERVIEWAMX designs and manufactures hardware and software for the distribution of video within meeting spaces, as well as across buildings or the globe using IP. They also create products that allow remote control of a wide variety of equipment including HVAC. AMX home automation controls are now also available through separate applications ("apps") for smartphones and tablet PCs through its authorised product partners such as Touch Panel Control. The application is available for iOS, Android, and Windows 8 platforms. COMPANY GROWTHIn February, 2005, Duchossois Industries, Inc. acquired previously publicly traded AMX for US$315 million. On November 1, 2006, AMX announced it had acquired ENDELEO, a UK -based manufacturer of analog audio visual distribution technologies. Just over a month later on December 4, 2006, AMX announced the acquisition of another signal switching and routing company, Washington -based AUTOPATCH. Less than two weeks later, MATRIX AUDIO DESIGNS, a Canadian company based in Barrie, Ontario , was acquired by AMX that specializes in high-quality, multi-room distributed audio systems
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Control4
CONTROL4 develops smart home automation systems to control lighting, entertainment, security, energy, and other connected devices. The company's 2013 initial public offering was considered to be the 'first pure-play home automation IPO ever.' Control4
Control4
is based in Draper, Utah with offices in York
York
, England; Shanghai, China ; Bangalore, India and San Jose, CA. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Products and services * 3 Proprietary products * 4 References HISTORYFounded in 2003 by Eric Smith, Will West and Mark Morgan, Control4 debuted at the CEDIA 2004 home technology trade show and released its first products later that year. The company received funding from Foundation Capital , Thomas Weisel Venture Partners , Signal Peak Ventures, Frazier Technology Ventures, and Cisco Systems prior to its August 2, 2013 IPO. Current CEO Martin Plaehn joined Control4
Control4
in September 2011. PRODUCTS AND SERVICESControl4’s home automation systems have been likened to an operating system for the home. The company develops a branded line of products and services to control home lighting, multi-room audio, and HVAC systems that utilize communication protocols such as ZigBee , Wi-Fi , Bluetooth
Bluetooth
, and Z-Wave
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