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Crofter
Crofting
Crofting
is a form of land tenure[1] and small-scale food production particular to the Scottish Highlands, the islands of Scotland, and formerly on the Isle of Man.[2] Within the 19th century townships, individual crofts are established on the better land, and a large area of poorer-quality hill ground is shared by all the crofters of the township for grazing of their livestock.[3]Contents1 Practice 2 Requirements 3 History 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPractice[edit] Crofting
Crofting
is a traditional social system in Scotland defined by small-scale food production. Crofting
Crofting
is characterised by its common working communities, or "townships". Individual crofts are typically established on 2–5 hectares (5–12 1⁄2 acres) of in-bye[4] for better quality forage, arable and vegetable production
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Culture Of Scotland
The culture of Scotland
Scotland
refers to the patterns of human activity and symbolism associated with Scotland
Scotland
and the Scottish people. Some elements of Scottish culture, such as its separate national church, are protected in law, as agreed in the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
and other instruments. The Scottish flag is blue with a white saltire, and represents the cross of Saint Andrew.Contents1 Scots law 2 Banking and currency 3 Sports 4 Literature 5 Art 6 Music 7 Media 8 Food and drink 9 Philosophy 10 Folklore 11 Language and religion 12 Interceltic festivals 13 National symbols 14 See also 15 References 16 External linksScots law[edit] Main article: Scots law Scotland
Scotland
retains Scots Law, its own unique legal system, based on Roman law, which combines features of both civil law and common law. The terms of union with England specified the retention of separate systems
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Cinema Of Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
has produced many films, directors and actors.Contents1 Scottish film directors1.1 List of Scottish film directors2 Scottish movie & TV actors 3 Scots-language films 4 Scots Gaelic language films 5 Scottish films 6 Movies filmed in Scotland6.1 List of movies filmed in Scotland7 See also 8 References 9 External linksScottish film directors[edit] Scotland
Scotland
has also been the birthplace of many film directors, some of whom have won multiple awards or enjoy a cult reputation. May Miles Thomas is one of these multi award-winning Scottish directors, having won Best Film, Best Director, Best Writer and Best Performance at the BAFTA
BAFTA
New Talent Awards and Best Achievement in Production at the British Independent Film Awards
British Independent Film Awards
for her film One Life Stand
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Lughnasadh
LughnasadhAlso called Lúnasa (Modern Irish) Lùnastal (Scottish Gaelic) Luanistyn (Manx Gaelic)Observed by Historically: Gaels Today: Irish people, Scottish people, Manx people, Celtic neopagans, WiccansType Cultural, Pagan (Celtic polytheism, Celtic Neopaganism)Significance Beginning of the harvest seasonCelebrations Offering of First Fruits, feasting, handfasting, fairs, athletic contestsDate 1 AugustRelated to Calan Awst, Lammas Lughnasadh
Lughnasadh
or Lughnasa (pronounced /ˈluːnəsə/, LOO-nə-sə) is a Gaelic festival marking the beginning of the harvest season. Historically, it was widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man. In Modern Irish it is called Lúnasa, in Scottish Gaelic: Lùnastal, and in Manx: Luanistyn. Originally it was held on 1 August, or about halfway between the summer solstice and autumn equinox
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Samhain
Samhain
Samhain
(/ˈsɑːwɪn, ˈsaʊɪn/; Irish: [sˠəuɪnʲ]) is a Gaelic festival marking the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the "darker half" of the year. Traditionally, it is celebrated from 31 October to 1 November, as the Celtic day began and ended at sunset. This is about halfway between the autumn equinox and the winter solstice. It is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals, along with Imbolc, Bealtaine
Bealtaine
and Lughnasadh. Historically, it was widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man
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Religion In Scotland
Religion in Scotland
Scotland
includes all forms of religious organisation and practice. Christianity
Christianity
is the largest faith in Scotland. In the 2011 census, 53.8% of the Scottish population identified as Christian (declining from 65.1% in 2001) when asked: "What religion, religious denomination or body do you belong to?". The Church of Scotland, a Presbyterian
Presbyterian
denomination often known as The Kirk, is recognised in law as the national church of Scotland. It is not an established church and is independent of state control. However, it is the largest religious grouping in Scotland, with 32.4% of the population according to the 2011 census
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Scottish Art
Scottish art
Scottish art
is the body of visual art made in what is now Scotland, or about Scottish subjects, since prehistoric times. It forms a distinctive tradition within European art, but the political union with England has led its partial subsumation in British art. The earliest examples of art from what is now Scotland
Scotland
are highly decorated carved stone balls from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period. From the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
there are examples of carvings, including the first representations of objects, and cup and ring marks. More extensive Scottish examples of patterned objects and gold work are found the Iron Age. Elaborately carved Pictish stones
Pictish stones
and impressive metalwork emerged in Scotland
Scotland
the early Middle Ages
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Scottish Literature
Scottish literature
Scottish literature
is literature written in Scotland
Scotland
or by Scottish writers. It includes works in English, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Brythonic, French, Latin, Norn or other languages written within the modern boundaries of Scotland. The earliest extant literature written in what is now Scotland, was composed in Brythonic speech in the sixth century and has survived as part of Welsh literature. In the following centuries there was literature in Latin, under the influence of the Catholic Church, and in Old English, brought by Anglian settlers. As the state of Alba developed into the kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
from the eighth century, there was a flourishing literary elite who regularly produced texts in both Gaelic and Latin, sharing a common literary culture with Ireland and elsewhere
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Music Of Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
is internationally known for its traditional music, which remained vibrant throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. In spite of emigration and a well-developed connection to music imported from the rest of Europe and the United States, the music of Scotland has kept many of its traditional aspects; indeed, it has itself influenced many forms of music. Many outsiders associate Scottish folk music
Scottish folk music
almost entirely with the Great Highland Bagpipe, which has long played an important part in Scottish music. Although this particular form of bagpipe developed exclusively in Scotland, it is not the only Scottish bagpipe. The earliest mention of bagpipes in Scotland
Scotland
dates to the 15th century although they are believed to have been introduced to Britain by the Roman armies
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Media Of Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Radio In Scotland
Radio
Radio
enjoys a large number of listeners in the United Kingdom. There are around 600 licensed radio stations in the country
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Television In Scotland
Television in Scotland
Scotland
mostly consists of UK-wide broadcasts, with variations at different times which are specific to Scotland. Scotland has no major television channel of its own and most people receive channels that are broadcast to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as a whole, including five terrestrial channels and various digital channels.Contents1 Terrestrial channels1.1 BBC
BBC
Scotland 1.2 ITV in Scotland2 News Programming 3 Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Television 4 The Scottish Six 5 Scottish television personalities 6 References 7 See alsoTerrestrial channels[edit] Viewers in Scotland
Scotland
receive four or five public terrestrial television stations. All of these are regional variants/opt-outs upon British television channels
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Sport In Scotland
Sport
Sport
plays a central role in Scottish culture. The temperate, oceanic climate has played a key part in the evolution of sport in Scotland, with all-weather sports like association football, rugby union and golf dominating the national sporting consciousness. However, many other sports are played in the country, with popularity varying between sports and between regions. Scotland
Scotland
has its own sporting competitions and governing bodies, such as the Camanachd Association, the Scottish Rugby Union, Scottish Rugby League
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Imbolc
Imbolc
Imbolc
or Imbolg (/ɪˈmɒlɡ/ i-MOLG), also called (Saint) Brigid's Day
Day
(Irish: Lá Fhéile Bríde, Scottish Gaelic: Là Fhèill Brìghde, Manx: Laa'l Breeshey), is a Gaelic traditional festival marking the beginning of spring. Most commonly it is held on 1/2 February, or about halfway between the winter solstice and the spring equinox.[1][2] Historically, it was widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man. It is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals—along with Beltane, Lughnasadh
Lughnasadh
and Samhain[3]—and corresponds to the Welsh Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau. For Christians, especially in Ireland, it is the feast day of Saint Brigid. Imbolc
Imbolc
is mentioned in some of the earliest Irish literature and there is evidence it has been an important date since ancient times
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Golf
Golf
Golf
is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, and coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game. The game at the highest level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller, usually 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, and a putting green containing the actual hole or cup (4.25 inches in diameter)
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Curling
Curling
Curling
is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls, boules and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones, also called rocks, across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice.[2] Each team has eight stones, with each player throwing two. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game; points are scored for the stones resting closest to the centre of the house at the conclusion of each end, which is completed when both teams have thrown all of their stones
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