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Critical Hours
Critical hours for radio stations is the time from sunrise to two hours after sunrise, and from two hours before sunset until sunset, local time. During this time, certain American radio stations may be operating with reduced power as a result of Section 73.187 of the Federal Communications Commission's rules.[1] Canadian restricted hours are similar to critical hours, except that the restriction results from the January 17, 1984, U.S.-Canadian AM Agreement. Canadian restricted hours are called "critical hours" in the U.S.-Canadian Agreement, but in the AM Engineering database, the FCC calls them "Canadian restricted hours" to distinguish them from the domestically defined critical hours. Canadian restricted hours is that time from sunrise to one and one-half hours after sunrise, and from one and one-half hours before sunset until sunset, local time. U.S
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Sunrise
Sunrise
Sunrise
or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.[1] The term can also refer to the entire process of the Sun
Sun
crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric effects.[2]Contents1 Terminology1.1 "Rise" 1.2 Beginning and end2 Measurement2.1 Angle 2.2 Time of day 2.3 Location on the horizon3 Appearance3.1 Colors 3.2 Optical illusions and other phenomena4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTerminology[edit] "Rise"[edit] Although the Sun
Sun
appears to "rise" from the horizon, it is actually the Earth's motion that causes the Sun
Sun
to appear
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Sunset
Sunset
Sunset
or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun
Sun
below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation. The Sun
Sun
will set exactly due west at the equator on the spring and fall equinoxes, each of which occurs only once a year.Subcategories of twilightThe time of sunset is defined in astronomy as the moment when the trailing edge of the Sun's disk disappears below the horizon
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Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (47 U.S.C. § 151 and 47 U.S.C. § 154) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC
FCC
works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, competition, the spectrum, the media, public safety and homeland security, and modernizing itself.[4] The FCC
FCC
was formed by the Communications Act of 1934
Communications Act of 1934
to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Territories of the United States
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Groundwave
In physics, a surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media. A common example is gravity waves along the surface of liquids, such as ocean waves. Gravity waves can also occur within liquids, at the interface between two fluids with different densities. Elastic surface waves can travel along the surface of solids, such as Rayleigh or Love waves. Electromagnetic waves can also propagate as "surface waves" in that they can be guided along a refractive index gradient or along an interface between two media having different dielectric constants
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Skywave
In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere. Since it is not limited by the curvature of the Earth, skywave propagation can be used to communicate beyond the horizon, at intercontinental distances. It is mostly used in the shortwave frequency bands. As a result of skywave propagation, a signal from a distant AM broadcasting station, a shortwave station, or—during sporadic E propagation conditions (principally during the summer months in both hemispheres) a distant VHF
VHF
FM or TV station can sometimes be received as clearly as local stations. Most long-distance shortwave (high frequency) radio communication—between 3 and 30 MHz—is a result of skywave propagation
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Pre-sunrise And Post-sunset Authorization
In USA AM broadcasting, presunrise authorization (PSRA) and postsunset authorization (PSSA) are permission from the Federal Communications Commission to broadcast in AM on mediumwave using a power level higher than what would normally be permitted prior to sunrise/after sunset, or in the latter case, provide Class D stations with service into the evening where they would otherwise be required to sign off. Sunrise and sunset times are provided on the licensee's basic instrument of authorization. The power level for both PSRA and PSSA service cannot exceed 500 watts
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Critical Hours
Critical hours for radio stations is the time from sunrise to two hours after sunrise, and from two hours before sunset until sunset, local time. During this time, certain American radio stations may be operating with reduced power as a result of Section 73.187 of the Federal Communications Commission's rules.[1] Canadian restricted hours are similar to critical hours, except that the restriction results from the January 17, 1984, U.S.-Canadian AM Agreement. Canadian restricted hours are called "critical hours" in the U.S.-Canadian Agreement, but in the AM Engineering database, the FCC calls them "Canadian restricted hours" to distinguish them from the domestically defined critical hours. Canadian restricted hours is that time from sunrise to one and one-half hours after sunrise, and from one and one-half hours before sunset until sunset, local time. U.S
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