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Cretaceous
The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/, kri-TAY-shəs) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface[1], with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Naming 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Era (geology)
A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time. The Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon is divided into three such time frames: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
Cenozoic
represent the major stages in the macroscopic fossil record. These eras are separated by catastrophic extinction boundaries, the P-T boundary between the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and the K-Pg boundary
K-Pg boundary
between the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and the Cenozoic. There is evidence that catastrophic meteorite impacts played a role in demarcating the differences between the eras. The Hadean, Archean
Archean
and Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eons were as a whole formerly called the Precambrian
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Climate
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal)
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Parts Per Million
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction. Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement. Commonly used are ppm (parts-per-million, 10−6), ppb (parts-per-billion, 10−9), ppt (parts-per-trillion, 10−12) and ppq (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). This notation is not part of the SI system and its meaning is ambiguous.Contents1 Overview1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy2 Parts-per expressions 3 Criticism3.1 Long and short scales 3.2 Thousand
Thousand
vs. trillion 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Jean Baptiste Julien D'Omalius D'Halloy
Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy
Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy
(February 17, 1783 in Liège – January 15, 1875 in Brussels) was a Belgian geologist. He also wrote on races.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Work 3 Descent with modification 4 Statesman 5 Pioneer 6 Belgian Academy of Sciences 7 ReferencesEarly life and education[edit] Born in Liège, he was the only son of an ancient and noble family, and his education was carefully directed. After completing his classical studies in his home town he was sent to Paris
Paris
in 1801 by his parents to avail himself of the social and literary advantages of the metropolis. A lively interest, however, in geology awakened by the works of Buffon, directed his steps to the museums and the Jardin des Plantes. He visited Paris
Paris
again in 1803 and 1805, and during these periods attended the lectures of Fourcroy, Lacépède, and Georges Cuvier
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Marine Reptile
Marine reptiles are reptiles which have become secondarily adapted for an aquatic or semiaquatic life in a marine environment. The earliest marine reptiles arose in the Permian period during the Paleozoic era. During the Mesozoic era, many groups of reptiles became adapted to life in the seas, including such familiar clades as the ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs (these two orders were once thought united in the group "Enaliosauria,"[1] a classification now cladistically obsolete), mosasaurs, nothosaurs, placodonts, sea turtles, thalattosaurs and thalattosuchians
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Myr
The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of 7006100000000000000♠1,000,000 (i.e. 7006100000000000000♠1×106) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.Contents1 Usage 2 Debate 3 See also 4 ReferencesUsage[edit] Myr
Myr
is in common use where the term is often written, such as in Earth science and cosmology. Myr
Myr
is seen with mya, "million years ago". Together they make a reference system, one to a quantity, the other to a particular place in a year numbering system that is time before the present. Myr
Myr
is deprecated in geology, but in astronomy myr is standard
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Geologic Period
A geologic period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth's history. Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages. The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system.Contents1 Structure 2 Correlation issues 3 See also 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic

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Inland Sea (geology)
An inland sea (also known as an epeiric sea or an epicontinental sea) is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during periods of high sea level that result in marine transgressions. In modern times, continents stand high, eustatic sea levels are low, and there are few inland seas, none larger than the Caspian Sea
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Neogene
The Neogene
Neogene
( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/)[6][7] (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary
Quaternary
Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs, the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary. During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa near the end of the period
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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