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Courtesy Name
A courtesy name (Chinese: 字, zi), also known as a style name,[1] is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.[2] This practice is a tradition in East Asian cultures, including China, Japan, Korea
Korea
and Vietnam.[3] Formerly in China, the zi would replace a male's given name when he turned twenty, as a symbol of adulthood and respect.[citation needed] It could be given either by the parents or by the first personal teacher on the first day of family school. Females might substitute their given name for a zi upon marriage
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Yan Zhitui
Yan Zhitui (Chinese: 顏之推; pinyin: Yán Zhītuī; Wade–Giles: Yen2 Chih1-T'ui1, 531–591) was a Chinese calligrapher, painter, musician, writer and politician who served four different Chinese states during the late Southern and Northern Dynasties: the Liang Dynasty in southern China, the Northern Qi
Northern Qi
and Northern Zhou
Northern Zhou
Dynasties of northern China, and their successor state that reunified China, the Sui Dynasty. Yan Zhitui was a supporter of Buddhism
Buddhism
in China despite criticism by many of his Confucian-taught peers. Yan was also the first person in history to mention the use of toilet paper.[1]Contents1 Family background 2 Life 3 Written works 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksFamily background[edit] Yan Zhitui's ancestors were originally from Linyi
Linyi
in modern-day Shandong
Shandong
Province
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Cognomen
A cognomen (/kɒɡˈnoʊmən/;[1][2] Classical Latin: [koːŋˈnoːmen]; Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions. Initially, it was a nickname, but it lost that purpose when it became hereditary. Hereditary cognomina were used to augment the second name (the family name, or clan name) in order to identify a particular branch within a family or family within a clan. The term has also taken on other contemporary meanings.Contents1 Roman names 2 As a contemporary term 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksRoman names[edit] Further information: Roman naming conventions Because of the limited nature of the Latin praenomen, the cognomen developed to distinguish branches of the family from one another, and occasionally, to highlight an individual's achievement, typically in warfare
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Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar[a] (/ˈsiːzər/; 12 or 13 July 100 BC[1] – 15 March 44 BC),[2] known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as a notable author of Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey
Pompey
formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics
Roman politics
for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
with the frequent support of Cicero
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Coming Of Age
Coming of age
Coming of age
is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult. It continues through the teenage years of life. The certain age at which this transition takes place changes in society, as does the nature of the change.[not in citation given][1] It can be a simple legal convention or can be part of a ritual or spiritual event, as practiced by many societies. In the past, and in some societies today, such a change is associated with the age of sexual maturity (early adolescence), especially menarche and spermarche.[2] In others, it is associated with an age of religious responsibility. Particularly in western societies, modern legal conventions which stipulate points in late adolescence or early adulthood (most commonly 18-21 when adolescents are generally no longer considered minors and are granted the full rights and responsibilities of an adult) are the focus of the transition
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Book Of Rites
The Book of Rites
Book of Rites
or Liji is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods. The Book of Rites, along with the Rites of Zhou
Rites of Zhou
(Zhouli) and the Book of Etiquette and Rites (Yili), which are together known as the "Three Li (Sanli)," constitute the ritual (li) section of the Five Classics which lay at the core of the traditional Confucian canon (Each of the "five" classics is a group of works rather than a single text)
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Chinese Character
Chinese characters
Chinese characters
are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese. Occasionally, they are also used for writing Korean, Vietnamese and some other Asian languages. In Standard Chinese, they are called Hanzi (simplified Chinese: 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字, lit "Han characters").[2][3][4] They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages, including Korean, where they are known as Hanja
Hanja
(漢字), Japanese, where they are known as Kanji
Kanji
(漢字), Vietnamese, in a system known as Chữ Nôm, and Zhuang, in a system known as Sawndip. Collectively, they are known as CJK characters
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Northern Qi
The Northern Qi
Northern Qi
(simplified Chinese: 北齐; traditional Chinese: 北齊; pinyin: Běi Qí; Wade–Giles: Pei3-Ch'i2) was one of the Northern dynasties
Northern dynasties
of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Wenxuan, and it was ended following attacks from Northern Zhou.Contents1 History 2 Emperors 3 Emperors family tree 4 Northern Qi
Northern Qi
arts 5 Identity 6 Religions 7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesHistory[edit]Mural painting from the tomb of Kao Yang.The Chinese state of Northern Qi
Northern Qi
was the successor state of the Chinese/ Xianbei
Xianbei
state of Eastern Wei
Eastern Wei
and was founded by Emperor Wenxuan
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Literary Name
A pseudonym (/ˈsjuːdənɪm/ or /ˈsuːdənɪm/ SEW-də-nim) or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym).[1] Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called screen names), ring names, pen names, nicknames, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors, popes, and other monarchs. Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms, and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym.[2] Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – usually adopted to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, and computer hackers' handles
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Du Fu
Du Fu
Du Fu
(Wade–Giles: Tu Fu; Chinese: 杜甫; 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty. Along with Li Bai
Li Bai
(Li Po), he is frequently called the greatest of the Chinese poets.[1] His greatest ambition was to serve his country as a successful civil servant, but he proved unable to make the necessary accommodations. His life, like the whole country, was devastated by the An Lushan Rebellion of 755, and his last 15 years were a time of almost constant unrest. Although initially he was little-known to other writers, his works came to be hugely influential in both Chinese and Japanese literary culture
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Confucius
Confucius
Confucius
(/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ kən-FEW-shəs;[1] 551 BC – 479 BC)[2][3] was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty
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Shang Dynasty
The Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(/ʃɑːŋ/;[2] Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin dynasty (/jɪn/; 殷代; Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
dated them from c
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Zhou Dynasty
The Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
or the Zhou Kingdom (/dʒoʊ/;[4] Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu cháo [ʈʂóu ʈʂʰǎu]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history
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Sinicization
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese
Han Chinese
culture and societal norms. Areas of influence include diet, writing, industry, education, language, law, lifestyle, politics, philosophy, religion, science and technology, culture, and value systems. More broadly, "Sinicization" may refer to policies of acculturation, assimilation, or cultural imperialism imposed by China
China
onto neighboring East Asian countries. Evidence of this can be seen in the value systems, cuisine, architectural style, and lexicons
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