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Countries Of The World
This LIST OF SOVEREIGN STATES provides an overview of sovereign states around the world , with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty . Membership within the United Nations system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states , 2 observer states , and 11 other states. The _sovereignty dispute_ column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, out of which there are 6 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood . For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the _criteria for inclusion _ section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have _de facto_ status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms
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Lists Of Countries And Territories
This is a list of many LISTS OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries
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Dependent Territory
A DEPENDENT TERRITORY, DEPENDENT AREA or DEPENDENCY is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside of the controlling state's integral area. A dependency is commonly distinguished from subnational entities in that they are not considered to be part of the integral territory of the governing state. A subnational entity typically represents a division of the state _proper_, while a dependent territory often maintains a great degree of autonomy from the controlling state. Historically, most colonies were considered to be dependencies of their controlling state. The dependencies that remain generally maintain a very high degree of political autonomy. At the same time, not all autonomous entities are considered to be dependencies, and not all dependencies are autonomous. Most inhabited dependent territories have their own ISO 3166 country codes. Some political entities have a special position recognized by international treaty or agreement resulting in a certain level of autonomy or differences in immigration rules. These are sometimes considered dependencies, but are officially considered by their controlling states to be integral parts of the state. Examples are Åland ( Finland
Finland
) and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
( China
China
)
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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World
The WORLD is the planet Earth
Earth
and all life upon it, including human civilization . In a philosophical context, the world is the whole of the physical Universe
Universe
, or an ontological world. In a theological context, the _world_ is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, spiritual, transcendent or sacred. The "end of the world " refers to scenarios of the final end of human history, often in religious contexts. History of the world is commonly understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion , world language , world government , and world war , _world_ suggests international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of the entire world. World population
World population
is the sum of all human populations at any time; similarly, world economy is the sum of the economies of all societies or countries, especially in the context of globalization . Terms like world championship , gross world product , world flags imply the sum or combination of all current-day sovereign states
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Sovereignty
SOVEREIGNTY is understood as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity . It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation . Derived from Latin through French _souveraineté_, its attainment and retention, in both Chinese and Western culture, has traditionally been associated with certain moral imperatives upon any claimant. CONTENTS * 1 Different approaches * 2 History * 2.1 Classical * 2.2 Medieval * 2.3 Reformation * 2.4 Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
* 3 Definition and types * 3.1 Absoluteness * 3.2 Exclusivity * 3.3 _De jure_ and _de facto_ * 3.3.1 Sovereignty
Sovereignty
and independence * 3.4 Internal * 3.4.1 Modern internal sovereignty * 3.5 External * 3.6 Shared and pooled * 3.7 Nation-states * 3.8 Federations * 4 Acquisition * 5 Justifications * 6 Views * 7 Relation to rule of law * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading DIFFERENT APPROACHESThe concepts of sovereignty have been discussed throughout history, and is still actively debated. It has changed in its definition, concept, and application throughout, especially during the Age of Enlightenment
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United Nations
The UNITED NATIONS (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international co-operation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations , the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War IIin order to prevent another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states ; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and experiences extraterritoriality . Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN Charter was drafted at a conference between April–June 1945 in San Francisco, and was signed on 26 June 1945 at the conclusion of the conference; this charter took effect 24 October 1945, and the UN began operation
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Member States Of The United Nations
The UNITED NATIONS MEMBER STATES are the 193 sovereign states that are members of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
. The UN is the world's largest intergovernmental organization, ahead of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation . The criteria for admission of new members to the UN are set out in Chapter II , Article 4 of the UN Charter : * Membership in the United Nations
United Nations
is open to all peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgement of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations. * The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council .A recommendation for admission from the Security Council requires affirmative votes from at least nine of the council's fifteen members, with none of the five permanent members using their veto power . The Security Council's recommendation must then be approved in the General Assembly by a two-thirds majority vote. In principle, only sovereign states can become UN members, and currently all UN members are sovereign states. Although five members were not sovereign when they joined the UN, all subsequently became fully independent between 1946 and 1991
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United Nations General Assembly Observers
In addition to its 193 member states , the UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY may grant OBSERVER STATUS to an international organization , entity or non-member state , which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
, though with limitations. The General Assembly may determine what privileges it grants with the observer status , such as a right to speak at General Assembly meetings, vote on procedural matters, serve as signatories on working papers, and sign resolutions, but not to sponsor resolutions or vote on resolutions of substantive matters. Exceptionally, the EU was granted in 2011 the right to speak in debates, to submit proposals and amendments, the right of reply, to raise points of order and to circulate documents, etc. As of May 2011 , the EU was the only international organisation to hold these enhanced rights, which has been likened to the rights of full membership, short of the right to vote. Observer status may be granted by a United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly resolution . The status of a permanent observer is based purely on practice of the General Assembly, and there are no provisions for it in the United Nations Charter . A distinction has been made between state and non-state observers
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United Nations System
The UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM consists of the United Nations
United Nations
, its subsidiary organs (including the separately-administered funds and programmes), the specialized agencies , and affiliated organizations. The executive heads of some of the United Nations
United Nations
System organizations and the World Trade Organization , which is not formally part of the United Nations
United Nations
System, have seats on the United Nations
United Nations
System Chief Executives' Board for Coordination (CEB). This body, chaired by the Secretary-General of the United Nations
United Nations
, meets twice a year to co-ordinate the work of the organizations of the United Nations System. The United Nations
United Nations
System includes the United Nations
United Nations
and its subsidiary bodies (such as the separately-administered funds and programmes, research and training institutes, and other subsidiary entities), specialized agencies, and affiliated organizations. Some of the organizations of the United Nations
United Nations
System predate the founding of the United Nations
United Nations
in 1945 and were inherited after the dissolution of the League of Nations
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Afghanistan
Coordinates : 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan * _د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت_ ( Pashto ) * _Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat_ * _جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان_ (Dari ) * _Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh Afġānestān_ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God
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Albania
ALBANIA (/ælˈbeɪniə, ɔːl-/ (_ listen ), a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə_ ; Albanian : _Shqipëri/Shqipëria_; Gheg Albanian : _Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia _), officially the REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA (Albanian : _Republika e Shqipërisë_, pronounced ), is a country in Southeastern Europe
Europe
. Albania
Albania
spans 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles) and had a total population of almost 3 million people as of 2016 . Albania
Albania
is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic with the capital in Tirana
Tirana
, the country's largest city and main economic and commercial centre, followed by Durrës and Vlorë . It is located in the south-western part of the Balkan peninsula , bordered by Montenegro
Montenegro
to the northwest, Kosovo
Kosovo
to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east, and Greece
Greece
to the south and southeast. The country has a coastline on the northern shore of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea , the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to the west and the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
to the southwest where the Albanian Riviera begins
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Algeria
Coordinates : 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2 People's Democratic Republic of Algeria الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية ( Arabic ) ⵟⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴻⴳⴷⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵖⴻⵔⴼⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔⵉⵜ (Berber ) _République démocratique populaire d'Algérie_ (French ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: بالشّعب وللشّعب By the people and for the people ANTHEM: _ Kassaman _ (English: "We Pledge") Location of Algeria (dark green) Capital and largest city Algiers 36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700°N 3.217°E / 36.700; 3.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Arabic * Berber OTHER LANGUAGES English and French (business and education) ETHNI
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Andorra
ANDORRA (/ænˈdɔːrə/ (_ listen ); Catalan: , locally ), officially the PRINCIPALITY OF ANDORRA (Catalan : Principat d'Andorra_), also called the PRINCIPALITY OF THE VALLEYS OF ANDORRA (Catalan: _Principat de les Valls d'Andorra_), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe
Europe
, located in the eastern Pyrenees
Pyrenees
mountains and bordered by Spain
Spain
and France
France
. Created under a charter in 988, the present principality was formed in 1278. It is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Co-Princes – the Catholic Bishop of Urgell in Spain, and the President of France
France
. Andorra
Andorra
is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe
Europe
, having an area of 468 km2 (181 sq mi) and a population of approximately 85,000. Andorra is the 16th-smallest country in the world by land and 11th-smallest country by population. Its capital Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres (3,356 feet) above sea level . The official language is Catalan , although Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly spoken. Andorra\'s tourism services an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually. It is not a member of the European Union
European Union
, but the euro is the official currency
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Diarchy
A DIARCHY (from Greek δι-, _di-_, "double", and -αρχία, _-arkhía_, "ruled") or DUUMVIRATE (from Latin
Latin
_duumvirātus_, "the office of the two men") is a form of government characterized by CORULE, with two people ruling a polity together either lawfully or by collusion and force . The leaders of such a system are usually known as CORULERS. Historically, 'diarchy' particularly referred to the system of shared rule in British India
British India
established by the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935 which devolved some powers to local councils which had included native Indian representation since 1892 . 'Duumvirate' principally referred to the offices of the various duumvirs established by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. Both, along with less common synonyms such as BIARCHY and TANDEMOCRACY, are now used more generally to refer to any system of joint rule or office. A monarchy temporarily controlled by two or more people is, however, usually distinguished as a coregency . Corule is one of the oldest forms of government. Historical examples include Sparta
Sparta
's joint kingdom , Rome 's consuls , and Carthage 's judges , and several ancient Polynesian societies. Systems of inheritance that often led to corule in Germanic and Dacian monarchies may be included as well, as may the dual occupants of the ranks of the Incan Empire
Empire

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President Of France
The PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC (French : _Président de la République française_, French pronunciation: ​ ), is the executive head of state of France
France
in the French Fifth Republic . In French terms, the Presidency
Presidency
is the _supreme magistracy_ of the country. The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the Prime Minister and Cabinet has over time differed with the various French constitutions since 1848 (the final end of the French Monarchy ). The President of France
France
is also the _ex officio _ Co-Prince of Andorra
Andorra
, Grand Master of the Légion d\'honneur and the Ordre national du Mérite and honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome. The current president is Emmanuel Macron , succeeding François Hollande on 14 May 2017
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