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Counties Of Estonia
COUNTIES (Estonian : maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia
Estonia
. Estonian territory is composed of 15 counties, including 13 on the mainland and 2 on islands. The government (maavalitsus) of each county is led by a maavanem (governor) who represents the national government (Vabariigi Valitsus) at the regional level. Governors are appointed by the national government for a term of five years. Each county is further divided into municipalities of two types: urban municipalities (towns, linnad) and rural municipalities (parishes, vallad). CONTENTS * 1 List of counties * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LIST OF COUNTIES Population
Population
figures are those of 1 January 2016. List of counties of Estonia
Estonia
Coat of arms COUNTY CAPITAL Area
Area
(km2) POPULATION Pop. density (inhab
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Estonia
ESTONIA (/ɛˈstoʊniə/ (_ listen ); Estonian : Eesti_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA (Estonian: _Eesti Vabariik_), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe . It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland , to the west by the Baltic Sea , to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). Across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi) of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate . The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 6500 BC, with Finno-Ugric speakers – the linguistic ancestors of modern Estonians – arriving no later than around 1800 BC
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Politics Of Estonia
POLITICS IN ESTONIA takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic , whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia
Estonia
is the head of government , and of a multi-party system . Legislative power is vested in the Estonian parliament . Executive power is exercised by the government , which is led by the prime minister . The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Estonia
Estonia
is a member of United Nations
United Nations
, the European Union , and NATO
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Constitution Of Estonia
The CONSTITUTION OF ESTONIA is the fundamental law of the Republic of Estonia
Estonia
and establishes the state order as that of a democratic republic where the supreme power is vested in its citizens. The first Constitution
Constitution
was adopted by the freely elected Estonian Constituent Assembly on 15 June 1920 and came into force on 21 December 1920. The second Constitution
Constitution
was adopted on 24 January 1934, following a referendum in 1933, and was in force until the third Constitution
Constitution
was enacted on 1 January 1938. It remained in force, de facto, until 16 June 1940, when the Soviet Union occupied Estonia
Estonia
and, de jure, until 28 June 1992, when the fourth and current Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic of Estonia
Estonia
was adopted by referendum
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Estonian Declaration Of Independence
The ESTONIAN DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, also known as the MANIFESTO TO THE PEOPLES OF ESTONIA (Estonian : Manifest Eestimaa rahvastele), is the founding act of the Republic of Estonia
Estonia
from 1918. It is celebrated on 24 February, the National Day or ESTONIAN INDEPENDENCE DAY . The declaration was drafted by the Salvation Committee elected by the elders of the Estonian Provincial Assembly . Originally intended to be proclaimed on 21 February 1918, the proclamation was delayed until the evening of 23 February, when the manifesto was printed and read out aloud publicly in Pärnu . On the next day, 24 February, the manifesto was printed and distributed in the capital, Tallinn
Tallinn

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Human Rights In Estonia
HUMAN RIGHTS IN ESTONIA are acknowledged as generally respected by the government, while there are concerns in some areas, such as detention conditions, police use of force , and child abuse. Estonia is ranked above-average in democracy , press freedom , privacy and human development . Individuals are guaranteed basic rights under the constitution , legislative acts, and treaties relating to human rights ratified by the Estonian government. Several international and human rights organisations, such as Human Rights Watch and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1993, the UN Human Rights Council in 2008 have found no evidence or pattern of systematic abuse of human rights or discrimination on ethnic grounds, while others, such as Amnesty International in 2009, have raised concerns regarding Estonia's significant Russophone
Russophone
minority
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Government Of Estonia
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA (Estonian : Vabariigi Valitsus) exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia
Estonia
. It is also known as the cabinet. The cabinet carries out the country’s domestic and foreign policy, shaped by parliament (Riigikogu); it directs and co-ordinates the work of government institutions and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power. The government, headed by the Prime Minister , thus represents the political leadership of the country and makes decisions in the name of the whole executive power
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President Of Estonia
The PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA (Estonian : Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia
Estonia
. Estonia
Estonia
is a parliamentary republic in which the President is a ceremonial figurehead with no executive power. The President is obliged to suspend their membership in any political party for the term in office. Upon assuming office, the authority and duties of the President in all other elected or appointed offices terminate automatically. These measures should theoretically help the President to function in a more independent and impartial manner. The President is elected by the Riigikogu
Riigikogu
or a special electoral body for a five-year term. The electoral body is convened in case no candidate secures a two-thirds supermajority in the Riigikogu
Riigikogu
after three rounds of balloting
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Kersti Kaljulaid
KERSTI KALJULAID ( ; born 30 December 1969) is an Estonian politician who is the fifth and current President of Estonia
President of Estonia
, in office since 10 October 2016. She is the first female head of state of Estonia
Estonia
since the country declared independence in 1918, as well as the youngest ever President, aged 46. Kaljulaid is a former state official, serving as Estonia's representative in the European Court of Auditors from 2004 until 2016. After several rounds of Estonian presidential elections in 2016 ended without success, she was brought as a "dark horse " and on 30 September 2016 she was nominated by the majority of parliamentary parties as a joint candidate for President of Estonia
President of Estonia
, she was the only nominated candidate in that round. She was voted President of Estonia
Estonia
on 3 October 2016, by 81 votes with 17 abstainers
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Prime Minister Of Estonia
The PRIME MINISTER OF ESTONIA (Estonian : Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as HEAD MINISTER OF ESTONIA) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia
Estonia
. The prime minister is nominated by the President after appropriate consultations with the parliamentary factions and confirmed by the Parliament . In case of disagreement, the Parliament can reject the President's nomination and choose their own candidate. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the ruling coalition. The current Prime Minister is Jüri Ratas
Jüri Ratas
of the Centre Party . In his role as appointed by the President and laid forth in the Constitution, the Prime Minister serves as the head of government. He does not head any specific ministry, but is, in accordance with the constitution , the supervisor of the work of the government
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Jüri Ratas
JüRI RATAS (born 2 July 1978 in Tallinn
Tallinn
) is an Estonian politician who is the current leader of the Centre Party and the Prime Minister of Estonia
Estonia
. He acted as the Vice-President of the Riigikogu
Riigikogu
and Mayor of Tallinn
Tallinn
from 2005 to 2007. As a Mayor
Mayor
of Tallinn
Tallinn
he initiated the European Green Capital programme. In 2015 parliamentary election , Ratas was reelected to the parliament with 7,932 individual votes. In March he was elected as the Second Deputy Speaker of the parliament. On 5 November 2016, Ratas was elected to succeed Edgar Savisaar
Edgar Savisaar
as the leader of the Centre Party. After Taavi Rõivas\' second cabinet split in November 2016 due to internal struggle, coalition talks began between Centre Party, Social Democratic Party and Pro Patria and Res Publica Union
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Jüri Ratas' Cabinet
JüRI RATAS\' CABINET is the incumbent cabinet of Estonia
Estonia
, in office since 23 November 2016. It is a coalition cabinet of Centre Party , Social Democratic Party and conservative Pro Patria and Res Publica Union . It was preceded by the Second Cabinet of Taavi Rõivas, a cabinet that ended when Social Democrats and the Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica joined the opposition's no confidence vote against the cabinet. This is the first time since 1999 the liberal Reform Party is out of the government. CONTENTS * 1 Ministers * 2 Resignations and Changes * 3 References * 4 External links MINISTERSCentre Party and Social Democratic Party announced the names of their chosen cabinet ministers on 19 November, whereas Pro Patria and Res Publica made the announcement on 21 November
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Riigikogu
GOVERNMENT (54) * KE (27) * SDE (15) * IRL (12)OPPOSITION (47) * RE (30) * EV (8) * EKRE (7) * Independent (2) ELECTIONS VOTING SYSTEM Party-list proportional representation Modified D\'Hondt method LAST ELECTION 1 March 2015 NEXT ELECTION 2019 or earlier MEETING PLACE Toompea Castle , Tallinn
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Eiki Nestor
EIKI NESTOR (born 5 September 1953 in Tallinn
Tallinn
) is an Estonian politician, member of the Social Democratic Party . He was the leader of the party from 1994 to 1996. Nestor has been a member of the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th Parliament of Estonia
Estonia
, being a Minister without Portfolio in charge of regional affairs from 1994 to 1995 and a Minister of Social Affairs from 1999 to 2002. He was elected Speaker of the Riigikogu
Riigikogu
in March 2014 and re-elected in March 2015. Nestor graduated from the Tallinn
Tallinn
University of Technology in 1976 as a mechanical engineer specializing in motor transport. He is married and has two sons, Siim Nestor and Madis Nestor. REFERENCES * ^ " Eiki Nestor
Eiki Nestor
re-elected as Parliament Speaker, Seeder and Ratas as deputies". ERR. 30 March 2015
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Supreme Court Of Estonia
The SUPREME COURT OF ESTONIA (Estonian : Riigikohus) is the court of last resort in Estonia
Estonia
. It is both a court of cassation and a constitutional court . The courthouse is in Tartu
Tartu

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Chancellor Of Justice (Estonia)
The Estonian CHANCELLOR OF JUSTICE (Estonian: Õiguskantsler) is an independent supervisor of the basic principles of the Constitution of Estonia
Estonia
and the protector of individual rights. The institution seeks to ensure that authorities fulfil the obligations deriving from the principles of the rule of law and protection of human and social rights, human dignity, freedom, equality and democracy. The Chancellor of Justice is appointed to office by the Riigikogu
Riigikogu
on the proposal of the President . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Role * 3 List of Chancellor of Justice * 4 References HISTORYThe institution of the Chancellor of Justice was originally established by the 1938 Constitution but ceased to operate in Estonia during the Soviet era. Re-established in 1993, it combines the function of the general body of petition and the guardian of constitutionality. Such a combined competence is unique internationally
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