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Council Of Florence
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
was convoked as the COUNCIL OF BASEL (Basle in the once-preferred English spelling) by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy . The Council entered a second phase after Emperor Sigismund 's death in 1437. Pope Eugene IV convoked a rival COUNCIL OF FERRARA on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing the Byzantine
Byzantine
ambassadors to Italy
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High Middle Ages
Central Europe Guelf , Hohenstaufen , and Ascanian domains in Germany about 1176 * Duchy of Saxony
Duchy of Saxony
* Margravate of Brandenburg * Duchy of Franconia * Duchy of Swabia * Duchy of Bavaria The HIGH MIDDLE AGES or HIGH MEDIEVAL PERIOD was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c.1001—1300). The High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
were preceded by the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and followed by the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, which by convention end around 1500
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rɪˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) is a period in European history , covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history . It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy
Italy
, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras
Protagoras
, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Hussite Wars
Hussite victory * Hussite church becomes free from the Papacy * Compromise between the Utraquist Hussites
Hussites
and the Council * Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor becomes King of Bohemia BELLIGERENTS
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Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman Dynasty
in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia
Bithynia
, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine
Byzantine
frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia
Anatolia
. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era
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Classical Antiquity
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome
Rome
, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe
Europe
, North Africa and Southwestern Asia . Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(5th century AD)
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Fourth Council Of Constantinople (Roman Catholic)
Κωνσταντινούπολις or Κωνσταντινούπολη (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin) Map of Constantinople
Constantinople
Shown within Turkey
Turkey
ALTE
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Early Modern Period
The EARLY MODERN PERIOD of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era . Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c. 1800) and is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
in 1453, with the Renaissance
Renaissance
period, and with the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
(especially with the voyages of Christopher Columbus beginning in 1492, but also with Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to the East in 1498), and ending around the French Revolution in 1789
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Early Middle Ages
The EARLY MIDDLE AGES (or EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD), lasting from the 5th to the 10th century CE , marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history . The Early Middle Ages followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and preceded the High Middle Ages (c. 10th to 13th centuries). The Early Middle Ages largely overlap with Late Antiquity . The term "Late Antiquity" is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the later medieval period. The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity , including population decline , especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration
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Late Antiquity
LATE ANTIQUITY is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe
Europe
, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East . The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown , after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
's Crisis of the Third Century (c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century
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Armenian Apostolic Church
The ARMENIAN APOSTOLIC CHURCH (Armenian : Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak'elakan Yekeghetsi) is the national church of the Armenian people . Part of Oriental Orthodoxy , it is one of the most ancient Christian communities. Armenia
Armenia
was the first country to adopt Christianity
Christianity
as its official religion, in the early 4th century. The church claims to have originated in the missions of Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the 1st century. It is sometimes referred to as the ARMENIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH or GREGORIAN CHURCH. The latter is not preferred by the church itself, as it views the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus as its founders, and St. Gregory the Illuminator
Gregory the Illuminator
as merely the first official governor of the church. It is also simply known as the ARMENIAN CHURCH
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Late Middle Ages
The LATE MIDDLE AGES or LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD were the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 1301–1500). The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance
Renaissance
). Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe
Europe
came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine
Famine
of 1315–1317 and the Black Death
Black Death
, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare
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Ferrara
FERRARA ( listen (help ·info )) (Emilian : Frara) is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara . It is situated 50 kilometres (31 miles) north-northeast of Bologna
Bologna
, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River , located 5 km (3 miles) north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, when it hosted the court of the House of Este
House of Este
. For its beauty and cultural importance it has been qualified by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. Modern times have brought a renewal of industrial activity
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Pope Martin V
POPE MARTIN V (Latin : Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born OTTO (or ODDONE) COLONNA, was Pope
Pope
from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417). CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Papacy * 2.1 Election * 2.2 Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
* 2.3 Crusades
Crusades
* 2.4 War against Braccio da Montone * 2.5 Annuity contracts * 2.6 Periodic ecumenical councils * 3 Death * 4 Personal views * 4.1 Position on Jews
Jews
* 4.2 Position on slavery * 5 Residences * 6 Numbering * 7 Notes * 8 References BIOGRAPHYHe was born at Genazzano , the son of Agapito Colonna and Caterina Conti, between January 26 and February 20, 1369. He belonged to one of the oldest and most distinguished families of Rome
Rome

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Byzantine
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Heresy
HERESY (/ˈhɛɹəsi/ ) is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs. A HERETIC is a proponent of such claims or beliefs. Heresy
Heresy
is distinct from both apostasy , which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy , which is an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things. The term is usually used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used also of views strongly opposed to any generally accepted ideas. It is used in particular in reference to Christianity , Judaism
Judaism
, and Islam . In certain historical Christian, Islamic and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is subjected not merely to punishments such as excommunication , but even to the death penalty
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