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Council Of Florence
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council
Ecumenical Council
of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
was convoked as the COUNCIL OF BASEL (Basle in the once-preferred English spelling) by Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V
shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars
Hussite wars
in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy . The Council entered a second phase after Emperor Sigismund 's death in 1437. Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV
convoked a rival COUNCIL OF FERRARA on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing the Byzantine
Byzantine
ambassadors to Italy
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Ferrara
FERRARA ( _ listen (help ·info )) (Emilian : Frara) is a city and comune _ in Emilia-Romagna , northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara . It is situated 50 kilometres (31 miles) north-northeast of Bologna , on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River , located 5 km (3 miles) north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, when it hosted the court of the House of Este . For its beauty and cultural importance it has been qualified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site . Modern times have brought a renewal of industrial activity. Ferrara is on the main rail line from Bologna to Padua and Venice , and has branches to Ravenna , Poggio Rusco (for Suzzara ) and Codigoro
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Heresy
HERESY (/ˈhɛɹəsi/ ) is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs. A HERETIC is a proponent of such claims or beliefs. Heresy is distinct from both apostasy , which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy , which is an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things. The term is usually used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used also of views strongly opposed to any generally accepted ideas. It is used in particular in reference to Christianity , Judaism , and Islam . In certain historical Christian, Islamic and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is subjected not merely to punishments such as excommunication , but even to the death penalty
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Armenian Apostolic Church
The ARMENIAN APOSTOLIC CHURCH (Armenian : Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, _Hay Aṙak'elakan Yekeghetsi_) is the national church of the Armenian people . Part of Oriental Orthodoxy , it is one of the most ancient Christian communities. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in the early 4th century. The church claims to have originated in the missions of Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the 1st century. It is sometimes referred to as the ARMENIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH or GREGORIAN CHURCH. The latter is not preferred by the church itself, as it views the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus as its founders, and St. Gregory the Illuminator as merely the first official governor of the church. It is also simply known as the ARMENIAN CHURCH
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Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
SIGISMUND OF LUXEMBOURG (15 February 1368 – 9 December 1437) was Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany
King of Germany
from 1411, King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
from 1419, King of Italy
King of Italy
from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxemburg
House of Luxemburg
. Sigismund von Luxembourg was the leader of the last West European Crusade - the Crusade of Nicopolis of 1396 to liberate Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and save Constantinople
Constantinople
from the Turks . Afterwards he founded the Dragon Order
Dragon Order
to fight the Turks
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Papal Supremacy
PAPAL SUPREMACY is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the pope , by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ and as pastor of the entire Christian Church , has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered: that, in brief, "the Pope
Pope
enjoys, by divine institution, supreme, full, immediate, and universal power in the care of souls." The doctrine had the most significance in the relationship between the church and the temporal state, in matters such as ecclesiastic privileges, the actions of monarchs and even successions
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media


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Hussite Wars
Hussite victory * Hussite church becomes free from the Papacy * Compromise between the Utraquist Hussites and the Council * Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
becomes King of Bohemia
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Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman Dynasty
in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia
Bithynia
, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine
Byzantine
frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia
Anatolia
. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era. Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm
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Papal Bull
A PAPAL BULL is a specific kind of public decree, letters patent , or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church . It is named after the leaden seal (_bulla _) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 Seal * 4 Content * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading HISTORY _ Printed text of Pope Leo X 's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther _, also known as _ Exsurge Domine _, issued in June 1520 Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes. However, it had become official by the 15th century, when one of the offices of the Apostolic Chancery was named the "register of bulls" ("_registrum bullarum_")
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Byzantine
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul , which had been founded as Byzantium ). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe . Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr
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Eastern Christianity
EASTERN CHRISTIANITY consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Oriental Orthodox churches , the Assyrian Church of the East , and the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain an Eastern liturgy ). The term is used in contrast with Western Christianity (namely the Latin Church and Protestantism ). Eastern Christianity consists of the Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor , the Balkans , Southern India and parts of the Far East over several centuries. The term does not describe a single communion or religious denomination . Some Eastern churches have more in common historically and theologically with Western Christianity than with one another
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Pope Martin V
POPE MARTIN V (Latin : Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born OTTO (or ODDONE) COLONNA, was Pope
Pope
from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism (1378–1417). CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Papacy * 2.1 Election * 2.2 Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
* 2.3 Crusades
Crusades
* 2.4 War against Braccio da Montone * 2.5 Annuity contracts * 2.6 Periodic ecumenical councils * 3 Death * 4 Personal views * 4.1 Position on Jews
Jews
* 4.2 Position on slavery * 5 Residences * 6 Numbering * 7 Notes * 8 References BIOGRAPHYHe was born at Genazzano , the son of Agapito Colonna and Caterina Conti, between January 26 and February 20, 1369. He belonged to one of the oldest and most distinguished families of Rome
Rome

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Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
FREDERICK III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), called THE PEACEFUL or THE FAT, was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1452 until his death, the first emperor of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
. He was the penultimate emperor to be crowned by the Pope
Pope
, and the last to be crowned in Rome . Prior to his imperial coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria , Carinthia and Carniola from 1424, and also acted as regent over the Duchy of Austria
Duchy of Austria
(as FREDERICK V) from 1439. He was elected and crowned King of Germany
Germany
(as FREDERICK IV) in 1440. He was the longest-reigning German monarch when in 1493, after ruling his domains for more than 53 years, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I
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Rump Organization
In politics , a RUMP ORGANIZATION is a remnant of a larger political grouping that continues to exist after the group has formally dissolved, split or been abolished. The word "rump" was first used with such a political meaning in reference to the English Rump Parliament of 1648-53 during the English Civil War
English Civil War
. SEE ALSO * Rump party * Rump legislature * Rump state This article about a political term is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rump_organization additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Hussites
The HUSSITES (Czech : Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre- Protestant
Protestant
Christian movement which began in the Kingdom of Bohemia
Bohemia
and followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus , who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation . Hussites
Hussites
emerged as majority Utraquist with a significant Taborite faction, and smaller regional ones that included Adamites , Orebites and Orphans
Orphans
. After the Council of Constance lured Jan Hus in with a letter of indemnity, then tried him for heresy and put him to death at the stake on 6 July 1415, the Hussites
Hussites
fought the Hussite Wars (1420–1434) for their religious and political cause
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