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Council Of Florence
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council
Ecumenical Council
of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
was convoked as the Council of Basel
Basel
(Basle in the once-preferred English spelling) by Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V
shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars
Hussite wars
in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy. The Council entered a second phase after Emperor Sigismund's death in 1437. Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV
convoked a rival Council of Ferrara
Ferrara
on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing the Byzantine
Byzantine
ambassadors to Italy
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Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Papal Supremacy
Papal supremacy
Papal supremacy
is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
that the Pope, by reason of his offic
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Second Council Of Lyon
The Second Council of Lyon
Lyon
was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1274.[1] Pope Gregory X
Pope Gregory X
presided over the council, called to act on a pledge by Byzantine emperor Michael VIII to reunite the Eastern church with the West.[2] The council was attended by about 300 bishops, 60 abbots[3] and more than a thousand prelates or their procurators, among whom were the representatives of the universities. Due to the great number of attendees, those who had come to Lyon without being specifically summoned were given "leave to depart with the blessing of God" and of the Pope. Among others who attended the council were James I of Aragon, the ambassador of the Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos with members of the Greek clergy and the ambassadors of Abaqa Khan
Abaqa Khan
of the Ilkhanate
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Council Of Vienne
The Council of Vienne
Council of Vienne
was the fifteenth Ecumenical Council
Ecumenical Council
of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
that met between 1311 and 1312 in Vienne. Its principal act was to withdraw papal support for the Knights Templar
Knights Templar
on the instigation of Philip IV of France, after the French monarch attacked Rome
Rome
and killed Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII
(Attack at Agnani).Contents1 Background 2 Calling of the Council 3 The decisions taken3.1 University chairs4 References 5 External linksBackground[edit] The Knights Templar
Knights Templar
were founded after the First Crusade
Crusade
of 1096 to ensure the safety of European pilgrims to Jerusalem. In the following centuries the order grew in power and wealth
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Council Of Trent
The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
(Latin: Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, or Trento, in northern Italy
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First Vatican Council
The First Vatican Council
First Vatican Council
(Latin: Concilium Vaticanum Primum) was convoked by Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX
on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864.[1] This, the twentieth ecumenical coun
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Second Vatican Council
Four Constitutions: Sacrosanctum Concilium
Sacrosanctum Concilium
(Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy) Lumen gentium
Lumen gentium
(Dogmatic Constitution on the Church)
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Ecumenical Council
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council)[1] is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.[2] The word "ecumenical" derives from the Late Latin oecumenicus "general, universal", from Greek oikoumenikos "from the whole world", from he oikoumene ge "the inhabited world (as known to the ancient Greeks); the Greeks and their neighbors considered as developed human society (as opposed to barbarian lands)", in later use "the Roman world" and in the Christian sense in ecclesiastical Greek, from oikoumenos, present passive participle of oikein "inhabit", from oikos "house, habitation."[3] The first seven
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Basel
Basel
Basel
(/ˈbɑːzəl/; also Basle /bɑːl/; German: Basel
Basel
[ˈbaːzl̩]; French: Bâle [bɑːl]; Italian: Basilea [baziˈlɛːa]) is a city in northwestern Switzerland
Switzerland
on the river Rhine. Basel
Basel
is Switzerland's third-most-populous city (after Zürich
Zürich
and Geneva) with about 175,000 inhabitants.[3] Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel
Basel
also has suburbs in France
France
and Germany
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Hussite Wars
Hussite
Hussite
victory, particularly for Moderate Hussites[1] Hussite
Hussite
church becomes free from the Papacy[1] Compromise between
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Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman Dynasty
in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine
Byzantine
frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era.[1] Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm
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Conciliar Movement
Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th-, 15th- and 16th-century Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council, apart from, or even against, the pope. The movement emerged in response to the Western Schism between rival popes in Rome
Rome
and Avignon. The schism inspired the summoning of the Council of Pisa
Council of Pisa
(1409), which failed to end the schism, and the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
(1414–1418), which succeeded and proclaimed its own superiority over the Pope. Conciliarism reached its apex with the Council of Basel
Council of Basel
(1431–1449), which ultimately fell apart
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Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
– 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany
King of Germany
from 1411, King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
from 1419, King of Italy
Italy
from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.[1] Sigismund von Luxembourg was the leader of the last West European Crusade - the Crusade of Nicopolis of 1396 to liberate Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and save Constantinople
Constantinople
from the Turks. Afterwards, he founded the Dragon Order to fight the Turks
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Fourth Council Of The Lateran
The Fourth Council of the Lateran
Fourth Council of the Lateran
was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
beginning 11 November 1215.[1] Du
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Ferrara
Ferrara
Ferrara
([ferˈraːra]  listen (help·info); Emilian: Frara) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara. In 2016 it had 132,009 inhabitants.[1] It is situated 44 kilometres (27 miles) northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located 5 km (3 miles) north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the Renaissance, when it hosted the court of the House of Este
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