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Cosmonautics Day
Cosmonautics Day
Cosmonautics Day
(Russian: День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia
Russia
and some other former USSR countries on 12 April.[1][2][3] In Poland
Poland
an "International Day of Aviation and Cosmonautics" (Polish: Międzynarodowy Dzień Lotnictwa i Kosmonautyki) is celebrated on the same day.[4] In 2011, 12 April was declared as the International Day of Human Space Flight in dedication of the first manned space flight made on 12 April 1961 by the 27-year-old Russian Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.[5] Gagarin circled the Earth for 1 hour and 48 minutes aboard the Vostok 1
Vostok 1
spacecraft.[6]Contents1 History 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The commemorative day was established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
one year later, on 9 April 1962
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Vladimir Voynovich
Vladimir Nikolayevich Voinovich, also spelled Voynovich (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Войно́вич, born 26 September 1932, Stalinabad) is a Russian writer, poet, playwright and journalist, a former Soviet dissident. He is a member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Department of Language and Literature.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Literary work 4 Public activism 5 Other work 6 Awards and honors 7 Personal life 8 Bibliography8.1 Stories and novels 8.2 Articles and interviews9 Filmography 10 Further reading 11 References 12 External linksEarly life[edit] Voinovich was born in Stalinabad, Tajik SSR, Soviet Union. His father Nikolai Pavlovich Voinovich (1905—1987) was a journalist of Serbian descent who worked as an editor in local newspapers; his ancestors moved to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
during the 19th century
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Novodevichy Cemetery
Novodevichy Cemetery
Novodevichy Cemetery
(Russian: Новоде́вичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow. It lies next to the southern wall of the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, which is the city's third most popular tourist site.[1]Contents1 History 2 Interments 3 Monuments 4 Sculptors 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The cemetery was designed by Ivan Mashkov
Ivan Mashkov
and inaugurated in 1898.[2] Its importance dates from the 1930s, when the necropoleis of the medieval Muscovite monasteries (Simonov, Danilov, Donskoy) were scheduled for demolition. Only the Donskoy survived the Joseph Stalin era relatively intact
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Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; English: The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports. It was founded on 14 October 1905, and is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland.[3] It maintains world records for aeronautical activities including ballooning, aeromodeling, and unmanned aerial vehicles; and also for human spaceflight.Contents1 History 2 Activities 3 Records3.1 Classes 3.2 Some of the records4 Awards 5 FAI Young Artists Contest 6 Members6.1 Active members 6.2 Associate members 6.3 Affiliate members 6.4 Temporary members 6.5 Suspended members7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] The FAI was founded at a conference held in Paris 12–14 October 1905, which was organised following a resolution passed by the Olympic Congress held in Brussels on 10 June 1905 calling for the creation of an Association "to regulate the sport of flying, ..
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Space Shuttle
The Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program. Its official program name was Space Transportation System
Space Transportation System
(STS), taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.[10] The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida
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STS-1
John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
programSTS-2 → STS-1
STS-1
(Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program. The first orbiter, Columbia, launched on 12 April 1981 and returned on 14 April, 54.5 hours later, having orbited the Earth 36 times. Columbia carried a crew of two – mission commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen. It was the first American manned space flight since the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
in 1975. STS-1
STS-1
was also the only maiden test flight of a new US spacecraft to carry a crew, though it was preceded by atmospheric testing of the orbiter and ground testing of the space shuttle system. The launch occurred on the 20th anniversary of the first-ever human spaceflight
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Space Shuttle Columbia
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
fleet. It launched for the first time on mission STS-1
STS-1
on April 12, 1981, the first flight of the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program
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United Nations General Assembly
For two articles dealing with membership of and participation in the General Assembly, see:General Assembly members General Assembly observers United Nations
United Nations
System Principal Organs United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly International Court of Justice United Nations
United Nations
Security Council United Nations
United Nations
Economic and Social Council United Nations
United Nations
Trusteeship Council The United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly (UNGA or GA; French: Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making, and representative organ of the UN
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Oscar Feltsman
Oscar Borisovich Feltsman (Russian: Оскар Борисович Фельцман; 18 February 1921 – 3 February 2013) was a Ukrainian-born Soviet/Russian composer,[1] father of Vladimir Feltsman.Contents1 Biography 2 Honours and awards 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Feltsman was born in Odessa, the son of Boris Osipovich Feltsman, a Lithuanian Jewish orthopedic surgeon who also played the piano professionally. He had musical training from the age of five; learning the violin as a pupil of Pyotr Stolyarsky
Pyotr Stolyarsky
and the piano with Bertha Reynbald, who also taught Emil Gilels
Emil Gilels
and Tatiana Goldfarb
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VIA Music
VIA (Russian: ВИА) is an abbreviation for Vocal-[Music] Instrumental-Ensemble (Russian: Вокально-инструментальный ансамбль, Vokalno-instrumentalny ansambl). It is the general name used for pop and rock bands that were formally recognized by the Soviet government from the 1960s to the 1980s. In Soviet times, the term VIA generally meant band, but it is now used in Russia to refer specifically to pop, rock, and folk groups active during the Soviet period.Contents1 History 2 Unique Characteristics 3 Repertoire 4 Rise and Fall 5 Bands 6 External links6.1 English 6.2 Russian 6.3 Videos7 ReferencesHistory[edit]A typical 70s Soviet VIA Tsvety, in the hippie-inspired dress of the eraVIA Zemlyane, circa 1984The term VIA appeared in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the 1960s and represented a model under which the Soviet government was willing to permit domestic rock and pop music acts to develop
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Red Square
Red Square
Red Square
(Russian: Кра́сная пло́щадь, tr. Krásnaya plóshchaď, IPA: [ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ]) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and now the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod
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Zemlyane
Zemlyane
Zemlyane
(Russian: Земляне, meaning Earthlings) is a Soviet, and later Russian rock band which enjoyed great popularity in the early 1980s. The band was formed in Leningrad, Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1978 and remains active to this day. A key artist in "VIA" (vocal-instrumental ensemble) wave of Soviet music, it was one of the first officially state-recognized bands to feature elements of rock music in USSR. Zemlyane
Zemlyane
used to mix hard rock music with synthpop, and Zemlyane's frontman Sergey Skachkov plays keytar
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Sergei Krikalyov
Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev (Russian: Серге́й Константинович Крикалёв, also transliterated as Sergei Krikalyov; born August 27, 1958) is a Russian cosmonaut and mechanical engineer. As a prominent rocket scientist, he is a veteran of six space flights and ranks third to Gennady Padalka
Gennady Padalka
and Yuri Malenchenko for the amount of time in space: a total of 803 days, 9 hours, and 38 minutes[1]. He retired from spaceflight in 2007 and is currently working as vice president of Space Corporation Energia.Contents1 Biography1.1 Mir 1.2 Space Shuttle 1.3 International Space Station2 Missions 3 Awards 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Krikalev was born in Leningrad
Leningrad
(now St. Petersburg), Russia. He enjoys swimming, skiing, cycling, aerobatic flying, and amateur radio operations, particularly from space (callsign U5MIR). He graduated from high school in 1975
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State Duma
Government (339)     United Russia
United Russia
(338)      Independent (1)Opposition (105)     Communist Party (42)      LDPR (40)      A Just Russia
A Just Russia
(23)Other (2)     Rodina (1)      Civic Platform (1)      Vacant (4)[1][2][3][4]ElectionsVoting system Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation
(2007 and 2011 elections) Parallel voting with 5% threshold (1993-2003 elections and since 2016 elections[5])Last election18 September 2016Next electionSeptember 2021Meeting placeState Duma
Duma
Building 1 Okhotny Ryad Street, MoscowWebsitewww.duma.gov.ruThis article is about the modern Russian assembly
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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