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Cosmonaut
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.[1][2] Starting in the 1950s up to 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies
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European Astronaut Corps
The European Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps is a unit of the European Space Agency (ESA) that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members on U.S. and Russian space missions. As of Nov 2014, 24 ESA
ESA
astronauts are now able to go board the ISS. There are currently 47 members of the Corps, 26 currently active. The European Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps is based at the European Astronaut
Astronaut
Centre in Cologne, Germany
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British Interplanetary Society
The British Interplanetary Society
British Interplanetary Society
(BIS), founded in Liverpool
Liverpool
in 1933 by Philip E. Cleator,[1] is the oldest space advocacy organisation in the world. Its aim is exclusively to support and promote astronautics and space exploration.Contents1 Structure 2 History2.1 Formation 2.2 Important proposals for design of space vehicles 2.3 Sub-orbital spaceflight 2.4 Nearest stars 2.5 Mars3 Publications 4 Awards given by the society 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksStructure[edit] It is a non-profit organisation with headquarters in London
London
and is financed by members' contributions
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Eugene Cernan
Eugene Andrew Cernan (/ˈsər.nən/; March 14, 1934 – January 16, 2017) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, electrical engineer, aeronautical engineer, and fighter pilot. During the Apollo 17 mission, Cernan became the eleventh person to walk on the moon and, as of 2018, is the last person to have walked on the Moon by virtue of being the last man to re-enter the lunar module. Cernan traveled into space three times; as pilot of Gemini 9A
Gemini 9A
in June 1966, as lunar module pilot of Apollo 10
Apollo 10
in May 1969, and as commander of Apollo 17
Apollo 17
in December 1972, the final Apollo lunar landing
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Spaceplane
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.[1] It combines features of an aircraft and a spacecraft, which can be thought of as an aircraft that can endure and maneuver in the vacuum of space or likewise a spacecraft that can fly like an airplane. Typically, it takes the form of a spacecraft equipped with wings, although lifting bodies have been designed and tested as well. The propulsion to reach space may be purely rocket based or may use the assistance of airbreathing jet engines. The spaceflight is then followed by an unpowered glide return to landing. Five spaceplanes have successfully flown to date, having reentered Earth's atmosphere, returned to Earth, and safely landed — the North American X-15, Space
Space
Shuttle, Buran, SpaceShipOne, and Boeing X-37. All five are considered rocket gliders
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International Astronautical Congress
Every year, the International Astronautical Federation together with the International Academy of Astronautics and the International Institute of Space Law (IISL), holds the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) which is hosted by one of the national society members of the IAF. They are an annual meeting of the actors in the discipline of space, and are generally held in late September or early October. They consist of plenary sessions, lectures and meetings. The IAC is attended by the agency heads and senior executives of the world's space agencies. As the Second World War came to an end, the United States and the Soviet Union began to divide due to their differences in ideology and the governance of their country. As the Cold War began to take shape, communication between the two countries became less frequent
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Mike Melvill
Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill (born November 30, 1940 Johannesburg [1]) is a world-record-breaking pilot[2] and one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites. Melvill piloted SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
on its first flight past the edge of space, flight 15P on June 21, 2004,[3] thus becoming the first commercial astronaut and the 434th person to go into space.[4] He was also the pilot on SpaceShipOne's flight 16P, the first competitive flight in the Ansari X Prize
Ansari X Prize
competition.[5]Contents1 Life and career 2 Awards and achievements 3 References 4 External linksLife and career[edit] In 1978, Melvill met aerospace designer and Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
founder Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
when he flew to California to show Rutan the VariViggen he had built at his home. Rutan then hired him on the spot
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Brian Binnie
William Brian Binnie
Brian Binnie
(born 1953) is a former United States Navy officer and is one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.Contents1 History1.1 SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
and spaceflight 1.2 After space-shot2 Quotes 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]Wife Bub Binnie upon completion of the final flightBinnie was born in West Lafayette, Indiana, where his Scottish father William P. Binnie was a professor of physics at Purdue University
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Astronautics
Astronautics
Astronautics
(or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere. The term astronautics (originally astronautique in French) was coined in the 1920s by J.-H. Rosny, president of the Goncourt academy, in analogy with aeronautics.[1] Because there is a degree of technical overlap between the two fields, the term aerospace is often used to describe both at once. In 1930, Robert Esnault-Pelterie
Robert Esnault-Pelterie
published the first book on the new research field.[2] As with aeronautics, the restrictions of mass, temperatures, and external forces require that applications in space survive extreme conditions: high-grade vacuum, the radiation bombardment of interplanetary space and the magnetic belts of low Earth orbit
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Man Hour
A man-hour, or less commonly person-hour, is the amount of work performed by the average worker in one hour.[1][2] It is used in written "estimates" for estimation of the total amount of uninterrupted labour required to perform a task. For example, researching and writing a college paper might require eighty man-hours. Preparing a family banquet from scratch might require ten man-hours. Man-hours do not take account of the breaks that people generally require from work, e.g. for rest, eating, and other bodily functions. They only count pure labour. Managers count the man-hours and add break time to estimate the amount of time a task will actually take to complete. Thus, while one college course's written paper might require twenty man-hours to carry out, it almost certainly will not get done in twenty consecutive hours
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Eric Frank Russell
Eric Frank Russell
Eric Frank Russell
(January 6, 1905 – February 28, 1978) was a British author best known for his science fiction novels and short stories. Much of his work was first published in the United States, in John W. Campbell's Astounding Science Fiction
Astounding Science Fiction
and other pulp magazines. Russell also wrote horror fiction for Weird Tales
Weird Tales
and non-fiction articles on Fortean topics. To 1955 several of his stories were published under pseudonyms, at least Duncan H
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Jim Lovell
James Arthur Lovell Jr. (born March 25, 1928) is a former NASA astronaut and a retired captain in the United States Navy. He is most famous as the commander of the Apollo 13
Apollo 13
mission, which suffered a critical failure en route to the Moon
Moon
but was brought back safely to Earth by the efforts of the crew and mission control. Lovell was also the command module pilot of Apollo 8, the first Apollo mission to enter lunar orbit. He is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon. He is the first of only three people to fly to the Moon
Moon
twice, and the only one to have flown there twice without making a landing
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Balloon (aircraft)
In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy. A balloon may be free, moving with the wind, or tethered to a fixed point. It is distinct from an airship, which is a powered aerostat that can propel itself through the air in a controlled manner. Many balloons have a basket, gondola, or capsule suspended beneath the main envelope for carrying people or equipment (including cameras and telescopes, and flight-control mechanisms).Contents1 Principles1.1 Hot air balloons 1.2 Gas balloons 1.3 Combination balloons 1.4 Tethering and kite balloons2 History2.1 Antecedents 2.2 The first modern balloons 2.3 Military use 2.4 Hot air returns3 Modern ballooning3.1 Sports 3.2 Commercial 3.3 Astronautics3.3.1 Balloon
Balloon
satellites 3.3.2 Planetary probes4 Ballooning records 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksPrinciples[edit] A balloon is conceptually the simplest of all flying machines
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J.-H. Rosny Aîné
J.-H. Rosny aîné was the pseudonym of Joseph Henri Honoré Boex (17 February 1856 – 11 February 1940), a French author of Belgian origin who is considered one of the founding figures of modern science fiction. Born in Brussels
Brussels
in 1856, he wrote in the French language, together with his younger brother Séraphin Justin François Boex under the pen name J.-H. Rosny until 1909. After they ended their collaboration Joseph Boex continued to write under the name "Rosny aîné" (Rosny the Elder) while his brother used J.-H. Rosny jeune (Rosny the Younger).Contents1 Overview 2 Selected bibliography 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOverview[edit] Rosny aîné was very much like H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
or Olaf Stapledon
Olaf Stapledon
in his concepts and his way of dealing with them in his novels
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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T. Keith Glennan
Thomas Keith Glennan (September 8, 1905 – April 11, 1995) was the first Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, serving from August 19, 1958 to January 20, 1961.Contents1 Early career 2 Administration 3 Later career 4 References 5 External linksEarly career[edit] Born in Enderlin, North Dakota, the son of Richard and Margaret Glennan, he attended the University
University
of Wisconsin–Eau Claire and then earned a degree in electrical engineering from the Sheffield Scientific School of
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