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Corticosteroids
CORTICOSTEROIDS are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates , as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids , are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response , immune response , and regulation of inflammation , carbohydrate metabolism , protein catabolism , blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol (C 21H 30O 5), corticosterone (C 21H 30O 4), cortisone (C 21H 28O 5) and aldosterone (C 21H 28O 5). (Note that aldosterone and cortisone share the same chemical formula but the structures are different.) The main corticosteroids produced by the adrenal cortex are cortisol and aldosterone
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Vasoconstriction
VASOCONSTRICTION is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles . The process is the opposite of vasodilation , the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in staunching hemorrhage and acute blood loss. When blood vessels constrict, the flow of blood is restricted or decreased, thus retaining body heat or increasing vascular resistance . This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the radiation of heat. On a larger level, vasoconstriction is one mechanism by which the body regulates and maintains mean arterial pressure . Medications causing vasoconstriction, also known as vasoconstrictors, are one type of medicine used to raise blood pressure
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Type IV Hypersensitivity
TYPE 4 HYPERSENSITIVITY is often called DELAYED TYPE HYPERSENSITIVITY as the reaction takes several days to develop. Unlike the other types, it is not antibody -mediated but rather is a type of CELL-MEDIATED response. CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of antigen-presenting cells . These can be macrophages that secrete IL-12 , which stimulates the proliferation of further CD4+ Th1 cells. CD4+ T cells secrete IL-2 and interferon gamma , inducing the further release of other Th1 cytokines , thus mediating the immune response. Activated CD8+
CD8+
T cells destroy target cells on contact, whereas activated macrophages produce hydrolytic enzymes and, on presentation with certain intracellular pathogens , transform into multinucleated giant cells . EXAMPLES This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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T Cell
A T CELL, or T LYMPHOCYTE, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell ) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity . T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells , by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface . They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus from thymocytes (although some also mature in the tonsils ). The several subsets of T cells each have a distinct function. The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system . Specialized gamma delta T cells , (a small minority of T cells in the human body , more frequent in ruminants ), have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system
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Immunosuppression
IMMUNOSUPPRESSION is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system . Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant , Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant , or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren\'s syndrome , or Crohn\'s disease . This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy ), plasmapharesis , or radiation. A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for some other reasons ( chemotherapy or HIV
HIV
), is said to be immunocompromised
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Drug Class
A DRUG CLASS is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures , the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target ), a related mode of action , and/or are used to treat the same disease. In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. For example, the fibrates are a chemical class of drugs (amphipathic carboxylic acids) that share the same mechanism of action ( PPAR agonist ), mode of action (reducing blood triglycerides ), and are used to prevent and to treat the same disease (atherosclerosis ). Conversely not all PPAR agonists are fibrates, not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are triglyceride lowering agents
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Protein
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication
DNA replication
, responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
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Catabolism
CATABOLISM (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy , or used in other anabolic reactions. Catabolism
Catabolism
breaks down large molecules (such as polysaccharides , lipids , nucleic acids and proteins ) into smaller units (such as monosaccharides , fatty acids , nucleotides , and amino acids , respectively). The pathways for catabolism and anabolism use different enzymes but are regulated by the same molecules, so they take place in different locations and organelles (eukaryotes) in cells to avoid interfering with one another. Cells use the monomers released from breaking down polymers to either construct new polymer molecules, or degrade the monomers further to simple waste products, releasing energy. Cellular wastes include lactic acid , acetic acid , carbon dioxide , ammonia , and urea
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Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis ). Most of these conditions involve excessive or deficient production of sex steroids and can alter development of primary or secondary sex characteristics in some affected infants, children, or adults. CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Genetics * 2.1 Expression * 3 Diagnosis * 3.1 Clinical evaluation * 3.2 Laboratory studies * 3.3 Classification * 4 Screening * 5 Treatment * 6 Epidemiology * 7 History * 7.1 Before 20th century * 7.2 20th and 21st century * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSThe symptoms of CAH vary depending upon the form of CAH and the sex of the patient
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Epidermis
The EPIDERMIS is the outer (ἐπί epi in Greek meaning "over" or "upon") of the two layers that make up the skin (or cutis ; Greek δέρμα derma), the inner layer being the dermis . This skin layer provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The outermost part of the epidermis is composed of stratified layers of flattened cells , that overlies a basal layer (stratum basale ) composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly. The rows of cells develop from the stem cells in the basal layer. ENaCs are found to be expressed in all layers of the epidermis
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Histidine
HISTIDINE (abbreviated as HIS or H; encoded by the codons CAU and CAC) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins . It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated –NH3+ form under biological conditions ), a carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated –COO− form under biological conditions), and an imidazole side chain (which is partially protonated), classifying it as a positively charged amino acid at physiological pH. Initially thought essential only for infants, longer-term studies have shown it is essential for adults also. Histidine
Histidine
was first isolated by German physician Albrecht Kossel and Sven Hedin in 1896. It is also a precursor to histamine , a vital inflammatory agent in immune responses. The acyl radical is HISTIDYL
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Brain Tumor
A BRAIN TUMOR or INTRACRANIAL NEOPLASM occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain . There are two main types of tumors : malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors. Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved. These symptoms may include headaches , seizures , problem with vision , vomiting , and mental changes. The headache is classically worse in the morning and goes away with vomiting. More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking, and with sensation. As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur. The cause of most brain tumors is unknown. Uncommon risk factors include inherited neurofibromatosis , exposure to vinyl chloride , Epstein–Barr virus , and ionizing radiation
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Skin Disease
A CUTANEOUS CONDITION is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system —the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin , hair , nails , and related muscle and glands . The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment. Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails ). While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying causes and pathogenetics are often not known
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Adrenal Insufficiency
ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones , primarily cortisol ; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid ), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention. Craving for salt or salty foods due to the urinary losses of sodium is common. Addison\'s disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia can manifest as adrenal insufficiency. If not treated, adrenal insufficiency may result in severe abdominal pains, vomiting, profound muscle weakness and fatigue, depression , extremely low blood pressure (hypotension ), weight loss, kidney failure, changes in mood and personality, and shock (adrenal crisis). An adrenal crisis often occurs if the body is subjected to stress, such as an accident, injury, surgery, or severe infection; death may quickly follow
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Kidney
The KIDNEYS are two bean -shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates . They filter the blood in order to make urine , to release and retain water, and to remove waste and nitrogen (the excretory system ). They also control the ion concentrations and acid-base balance of the blood. Each kidney feeds urine into the bladder by means of a tube known as the ureter . In humans, they are roughly 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. The kidneys regulate the balance of ions known as electrolytes in the blood, along with maintaining acid base homeostasis . They also move waste products out of the blood and into the urine, such as nitrogen-containing urea and ammonium . Kidneys also regulate fluid balance and blood pressure . They are also responsible for the reabsorption of water , glucose , and amino acids . The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol and erythropoietin
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