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Corticosteroids
CORTICOSTEROIDS are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates , as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids , are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response , immune response , and regulation of inflammation , carbohydrate metabolism , protein catabolism , blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol (C 21H 30O 5), corticosterone (C 21H 30O 4), cortisone (C 21H 28O 5) and aldosterone (C 21H 28O 5). (Note that aldosterone and cortisone share the same chemical formula but the structures are different.) The main corticosteroids produced by the adrenal cortex are cortisol and aldosterone
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Drug Class
A DRUG CLASS is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures , the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target ), a related mode of action , and/or are used to treat the same disease. In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. For example, the fibrates are a chemical class of drugs (amphipathic carboxylic acids) that share the same mechanism of action ( PPAR agonist ), mode of action (reducing blood triglycerides ), and are used to prevent and to treat the same disease (atherosclerosis ). Conversely not all PPAR agonists are fibrates, not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are triglyceride lowering agents
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Cortisol
CORTISOL is a steroid hormone , in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone . It is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland . It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration . It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis , to suppress the immune system , and to aid in the metabolism of fat , protein , and carbohydrates . It also decreases bone formation
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Hydrocortisone
HYDROCORTISONE, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication. Uses include conditions such as adrenocortical insufficiency , adrenogenital syndrome , high blood calcium , thyroiditis , rheumatoid arthritis , dermatitis , asthma , and COPD . It is the treatment of choice for adrenocortical insufficiency. It can be given by mouth, topically, or by injection. Stopping treatment after long-term use should be done slowly. Side effects may include mood changes, increased risk of infection , and swelling . With long-term use common side effects include osteoporosis , upset stomach , physical weakness , easy bruising , and yeast infections . While used, it is unclear if it is safe during pregnancy . It works as an antiinflammatory and by immune suppression . Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
was discovered in 1955
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Glucocorticoid
GLUCOCORTICOIDS (GCS) are a class of corticosteroids , which are a class of steroid hormones . Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid (GLUCOse + CORTex + sterOID) is composed from its role in regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex , and its steroidal structure (see structure to the right). A less common synonym is GLUCOCORTICOSTEROID. GCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as reduction of inflammation . They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an overactive immune system, such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases , and sepsis . GCs have many diverse (pleiotropic ) effects, including potentially harmful side effects, and as a result are rarely sold over the counter
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Mineralocorticoid
MINERALOCORTICOIDS are a class of corticosteroids , which are a class of steroid hormones . Mineralocorticoids are produced in the adrenal cortex and influence salt and water balances (electrolyte balance and fluid balance ). The primary mineralocorticoid is aldosterone . CONTENTS * 1 Physiology * 2 Mode of action * 2.1 Genomic mechanisms * 3 Pathophysiology * 4 Pharmacology
Pharmacology
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links PHYSIOLOGYThe name mineralocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in the retention of sodium , a mineral . The primary endogenous mineralocorticoid is aldosterone , although a number of other endogenous hormones (including progesterone and deoxycorticosterone ) have mineralocorticoid function
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Synonym
A SYNONYM is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be SYNONYMOUS, and the state of being a synonym is called SYNONYMY. The word comes from Ancient Greek _sýn_ (σύν; "with") and _ónoma_ (ὄνομα; "name"). An example of synonyms are the words _begin_, _start_, _commence_, and _initiate_. Words can be synonymous when meant in certain senses , even if they are not synonymous in all of their senses. For example, if one talks about a _long time_ or an _extended time_, _long_ and _extended_ are synonymous within that context . Synonyms with exact meaning share a seme or denotational sememe , whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field . Some academics call the former type cognitive synonyms to distinguish them from the latter type, which they call near-synonyms
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The ANATOMICAL THERAPEUTIC CHEMICAL (ATC) CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic , pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976. This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act and/or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics . Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use). This means that one drug can have more than one code: acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), for example, has A01AD05 (WHO) as a drug for local oral treatment, B01AC06 (WHO) as a platelet inhibitor , and N02BA01 (WHO) as an analgesic and antipyretic
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ATC Code H02
ATC CODE H02 Corticosteroids
Corticosteroids
for systemic use is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System , a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products. Subgroup H02 is part of the anatomical group H Systemic hormonal preparations, excluding sex hormones and insulins . Codes for veterinary use (ATCvet codes ) can be created by placing the letter Q in front of the human ATC code: for example, QH02. ATCvet codes without corresponding human ATC codes are cited with the leading Q in the following list. National issues of the ATC classification may include additional codes not present in this list, which follows the WHO version
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Biological Target
A BIOLOGICAL TARGET is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug ) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function. Examples of common classes of biological targets are proteins and nucleic acids . The definition is context-dependent, and can refer to the biological target of a pharmacologically active drug compound , the receptor target of a hormone (like insulin ), or some other target of an external stimulus. Biological targets are most commonly proteins such as enzymes , ion channels , and receptors . CONTENTS * 1 Mechanism * 2 Drug targets * 3 Drug target identification * 4 Databases * 5 See also * 6 References MECHANISMThe external stimulus (_i.e._, the drug or ligand) physically binds to ("hits") the biological target
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Corticosteroid Receptor
The CORTICOSTEROID RECEPTORS are receptors for corticosteroids . They include the following two nuclear receptors : * Glucocorticoid receptor
Glucocorticoid receptor
(type II) – glucocorticoids like cortisol * Mineralocorticoid receptor
Mineralocorticoid receptor
(type I) – mineralocorticoids like aldosterone There are also membrane corticosteroid receptors , including the membrane glucocorticoid receptors and the membrane mineralocorticoid receptors , which are not well-characterized at present. REFERENCES * ^ A B Scott T. Brady; George J. Siegel; Robert Wayne Albers; Donald Lowell Price (2012). Basic Neurochemistry: Principles of Molecular, Cellular and Medical Neurobiology. Academic Press. pp. 522–. ISBN 978-0-12-374947-5 . * ^ Eugenia Wang; D. Stephen Snyder (13 August 1998). Handbook of the Aging Brain. Academic Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-0-08-053322-3 . * ^ Hormones, Brain and Behavior, Five-Volume Set
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Chemical Classification
CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. Where as the structural properties are largely intrinsic , functional properties and the derived classifications depend to a certain degree on the type of chemical interaction partners on which the function is exerted. Sometimes other criteria like purely physical ones (e.g. molecular weight ) or - on the other hand - functional properties above the chemical level are also used for building chemical taxonomies . Some systems mix the various levels, resulting in hierarchies where the domains are slightly confused, for example having structural and functional aspects end up on the same level. Whereas chemical function is closely dependent on chemical structure, the situation becomes more involved when e.g
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Steroid
A STEROID is an organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration . Examples include the dietary lipid cholesterol , the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone :10–19 and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone . Steroids have two principal biological functions: certain steroids (such as cholesterol) are important components of cell membranes which alter membrane fluidity , and many steroids are signaling molecules which activate steroid hormone receptors . The steroid core structure is composed of seventeen carbon atoms, bonded in four "fused " rings: three six-member cyclohexane rings (rings A, B and C in the first illustration) and one five-member cyclopentane ring (the D ring). Steroids vary by the functional groups attached to this four-ring core and by the oxidation state of the rings. Sterols are forms of steroids with a hydroxyl group at position three and a skeleton derived from cholestane
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Steroid Hormone
A STEROID HORMONE is a steroid that acts as a hormone . Steroid hormones can be grouped into two classes: corticosteroids (typically made in the adrenal cortex , hence cortico-) and sex steroids (typically made in the gonads or placenta ). Within those two classes are five types according to the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids , mineralocorticoids (corticosteroids), androgens , estrogens , and progestogens (sex steroids). Vitamin D
Vitamin D
derivatives are a sixth closely related hormone system with homologous receptors. They have some of the characteristics of true steroids as receptor ligands . Steroid
Steroid
hormones help control metabolism, inflammation , immune functions , salt and water balance , development of sexual characteristics , and the ability to withstand illness and injury
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Adrenal Cortex
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland , the ADRENAL CORTEX mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids , such as aldosterone and cortisol , respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis. Recent data suggest that adrenocortical cells under pathological as well as under physiological conditions show neuroendocrine properties; within the normal adrenal, this neuroendocrine differentiation seems to be restricted to cells of the zona glomerulosa and might be important for an autocrine regulation of adrenocortical function. CONTENTS * 1 Layers * 2 Hormone
Hormone
synthesis * 3 Production * 3.1 Mineralocorticoids * 3.2 Glucocorticoids * 3.3 Androgens * 4 Pathology
Pathology
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links LAYERSThe adrenal cortex comprises three main zones, or layers
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Vertebrates
Fire salamander (Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes) SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION _ Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Clade_: Craniata Subphylum: VERTEBRATA J-B. Lamarck , 1801 SIMPLIFIED GROUPING (SEE TEXT) * Fishes * Tetrapods SYNONYMS Ossea Batsch, 1788 VERTEBRATES /ˈvɜːrtᵻbrᵻts/ comprise all species of animals within the subphylum VERTEBRATA /-ɑː/ (chordates with backbones ). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata , with currently about 66,000 species described. Vertebrates include the jawless fish and the jawed vertebrates , which include the cartilaginous fish (sharks , rays , and ratfish) and the bony fish
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