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Corticosteroids
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.[1] Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol (C 21H 30O 5), corticosterone (C 21H 30O 4), cortisone (C 21H 28O 5) and aldosterone (C 21H 28O 5)
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Drug Class
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.[1][2] In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. For example, the fibrates are a chemical class of drugs (amphipathic carboxylic acids) that share the same mechanism of action (PPAR agonist), mode of action (reducing blood triglycerides), and are used to prevent and to treat the same disease (atherosclerosis)
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Histidine
Histidine
Histidine
(symbol His or H;[2] encoded by the codons CAU and CAC) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated –NH3+ form under biological conditions), a carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated –COO− form under biological conditions), and an imidazole side chain (which is partially protonated), classifying it as a positively charged amino acid at physiological pH. Initially thought essential only for infants, longer-term studies have shown it is essential for adults also.[3] Histidine
Histidine
was first isolated by German physician Albrecht Kossel
Albrecht Kossel
and Sven Hedin in 1896.[4] It is also a precursor to histamine, a vital inflammatory agent in immune responses
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Electrolyte
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly through the solvent. Electrically, such a solution is neutral. If an electric potential is applied to such a solution, the cations of the solution are drawn to the electrode that has an abundance of electrons, while the anions are drawn to the electrode that has a deficit of electrons. The movement of anions and cations in opposite directions within the solution amounts to a current. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes
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Immunosuppression
Immunosuppression
Immunosuppression
is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.[1][2] In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant,[3] Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, or Crohn's disease. This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy), plasmapheresis, or radiation
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Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles. The process is the opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in staunching hemorrhage and acute blood loss. When blood vessels constrict, the flow of blood is restricted or decreased, thus retaining body heat or increasing vascular resistance. This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the radiation of heat. On a larger level, vasoconstriction is one mechanism by which the body regulates and maintains mean arterial pressure. Medications causing vasoconstriction, also known as vasoconstrictors, are one type of medicine used to raise blood pressure
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Type IV Hypersensitivity
Type 4 hypersensitivity is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes several days to develop. Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These can be macrophages that secrete IL-12, which stimulates the proliferation of further CD4+ Th1 cells. CD4+ T cells secrete IL-2 and interferon gamma, inducing the further release of other Th1 cytokines, thus mediating the immune response. Activated CD8+
CD8+
T cells destroy target cells on contact, whereas activated macrophages produce hydrolytic enzymes and, on presentation with certain intracellular pathogens, transform into multinucleated giant cells. Examples[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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T Cell
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor
T-cell receptor
on the cell surface. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus from thymocytes[1] (although some also mature in the tonsils[2]). The several subsets of T cells each have a distinct function. The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system
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DNA Synthesis
DNA
DNA
synthesis is the natural or artificial creation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules
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Epidermis
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.[1] The epidermis layer provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens[2] and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss.[3] The outermost part of the epidermis is composed of stratified layers of flattened cells,[4] that overlies a basal layer (stratum basale) composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly. The rows of cells develop from the stem cells in the basal layer. ENaCs are found to be expressed in all layers of the epidermis.[5] Epidermis
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Water-electrolyte Balance
Osmoregulation
Osmoregulation
is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated. Osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure
is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Ion Transporter
In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.[1] These primary transporters are enzymes that convert energy from various sources—including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), sunlight, and other redox reactions—to potential energy stored in an electrochemical gradient
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Epithelium
Epithelium
Epithelium
(/ˌɛpɪˈθiːliəm/)[1] is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. All glands are made up of epithelial cells
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Nephron
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It is composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman's capsule. The renal tubule extends from the capsule. The capsule and tubule are connected and are composed of epithelial cells with a lumen. A healthy adult has 0.8 to 1.5 million nephrons in each kidney. Blood
Blood
is filtered as it passes through three layers: the endothelial cells of the capillary wall, its basement membrane, and between the foot processes of the podocytes of the lining of the capsule
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Kidney
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. They are located at the back of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneal space. In adults they are about 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult kidney contains around one million nephrons. The nephron utilizes four processes to alter the blood plasma which flows to it: filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion
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