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Coronary Angiography
A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter. It is performed for both diagnostic and interventional (treatment) purposes. Coronary catheterization
Coronary catheterization
is one of the several cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures. Specifically, coronary catheterization is a visually interpreted test performed to recognize occlusion, stenosis, restenosis, thrombosis or aneurysmal enlargement of the coronary artery lumens; heart chamber size; heart muscle contraction performance; and some aspects of heart valve function. Important internal heart and lung blood pressures, not measurable from outside the body, can be accurately measured during the test. The relevant problems that the test deals with most commonly occur as a result of advanced atherosclerosis – atheroma activity within the wall of the coronary arteries
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Ventricular Arrhythmia
Heart arrhythmia
Heart arrhythmia
also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.[2] A heart rate that is too fast – above 100 beats per minute in adults – is called tachycardia and a heart rate that is too slow – below 60 beats per minute – is called bradycardia.[2] Many types of arrhythmia have no symptoms.[1] When symptoms are present these may include palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats.[1] More seriously there may be lightheadedness, passing out, sho
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Eduardo Pereira
Eduardo Pereira Martínez (born 21 March 1954 in Montevideo) is a retired Uruguayan footballer.[1] International career[edit] Pereira made ten appearances for the senior Uruguay
Uruguay
national football team from 1987 to 1990,[1] including four 1990 FIFA
FIFA
World Cup qualifiers.[2] References[edit]^ a b "Ficha de Jugador de selección: Eduardo Pereira". Tenfield. Archived from the original on 2007-07-24
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Angina Pectoris
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle. Angina
Angina
is usually due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries.[1] Other causes include anemia, abnormal heart rhythms, and heart failure. The main mechanism of coronary artery obstruction is an atherosclerosis. The term derives from the Latin
Latin
angere ("to strangle") and pectus ("chest"), and can therefore be translated as "a strangling feeling in the chest". There is a weak relationship between severity of pain and degree of oxygen deprivation in the heart muscle (i.e., there can be severe pain with little or no risk of a myocardial infarction (heart attack) and a heart attack can occur without pain). In some cases, angina can be quite severe, and in the early 20th century this was a known sign of impending death.[2] However, given current medical therapies, the outlook has improved substantially
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IVUS
Intravascular ultrasound
Intravascular ultrasound
(IVUS) is a medical imaging methodology using a specially designed catheter with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to the distal end of the catheter. The proximal end of the catheter is attached to computerized ultrasound equipment. It allows the application of ultrasound technology, such as piezoelectric transducer or CMUT, to see from inside blood vessels out through the surrounding blood column, visualizing the endothelium (inner wall) of blood vessels in living individuals.[1] The arteries of the heart (the coronary arteries) are the most frequent imaging target for IVUS. IVUS is used in the coronary arteries to determine the amount of atheromatous plaque built up at any particular point in the epicardial coronary artery
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History Of Invasive And Interventional Cardiology
The history of invasive and interventional cardiology is complex, with multiple groups working independently on similar technologies. Invasive and interventional cardiology is currently closely associated with cardiologists (physicians who treat the diseases of the heart), though the development and most of its early research and procedures were performed by diagnostic and interventional radiologists.Contents1 The birth of invasive cardiology 2 Catheterization of humans2.1 Development of the diagnostic coronary angiogram 2.2 Dawn of the interventional era 2.3 Development of the intracoronary stent 2.4 Changes in post-procedure medications 2.5 The drug eluting stent era 2.6 Modern controversies in interventional cardiology2.6.1 Roles of bypass surgery and intracoronary stents for coronary artery disease 2.6.2 The role of PCI in individuals without symptoms of ischemic heart disease 2.6.3 The safety of drug-eluting stents3 See also 4 References 5 Extern
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Egas Moniz
António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz (Portuguese: [ˈɛɣɐʒ muˈniʃ]), was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern psychosurgery,[1] having developed the surgical procedure leucotomy—​known better today as lobotomy—​for which he became the first Portuguese national to receive a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in 1949 (shared with Walter Rudolf Hess).[2] He held academic positions, wrote many medical articles and also served in several legislative and diplomatic posts in the Portuguese government
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University Of Lisbon
         Black and white (University; rectory)Schools[2]     Light green (Agronomy)      Purple (Architecture)      Royal blue (Arts)      Royal yellow (Dental Medicine)      Red (Economics and Management)      Light brown (Education)      Pink (Fine Arts)      Dark green (Geography and Spatial Planning)      Dark brown (Human Motricity)      Dark Red (Law)      Yellow (Medicine)      Violet (Pharmacy)      Orange (Psychology)      Red (Social and Political Sciences)      Spanish blue (Social Sciences)      Light blue (Sciences)      Process cyan (Technical)      Royal yellow (Ve
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Cerebral Angiography
Cerebral angiography
Cerebral angiography
is a form of angiography which provides images of blood vessels in and around the brain, thereby allowing detection of abnormalities such as arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms. It was pioneered in 1927 by the Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz
Egas Moniz
at the University of Lisbon, who also helped develop thorotrast for use in the procedure.[1] Typically a catheter is inserted into a large artery (such as the femoral artery) and threaded through the circulatory system to the carotid artery, where a contrast agent is injected
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Werner Forssmann
Werner Theodor Otto Forßmann (Forssmann in English; 29 August 1904 – 1 June 1979) was a physician from Germany who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Medicine
Medicine
(with Andre Frederic Cournand
Andre Frederic Cournand
and Dickinson W. Richards) for developing a procedure that allowed cardiac catheterization. In 1929, he put himself under local anesthesia and inserted a catheter into a vein of his arm. Not knowing if the catheter might pierce a vein, he put his life at risk. Forssmann was nevertheless successful; he safely passed the catheter into his heart.Contents1 Life 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Forssmann was born in Berlin
Berlin
on 29 August 1904
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André Cournand
André Frédéric Cournand
André Frédéric Cournand
(September 24, 1895 – February 19, 1988) was a French physician and physiologist.Contents1 Biography 2 References 3 Sources 4 External linksBiography[edit] Cournand was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1956 along with Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
and Dickinson W. Richards
Dickinson W. Richards
for the development of cardiac catheterization. Born in Paris, Cournand emigrated to the United States
United States
in 1930 and, in 1941, became a naturalized citizen
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Dickinson Richards
Dickinson Woodruff Richards, Jr. (October 30, 1895 – February 23, 1973) was an American physician and physiologist. He was a co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1956 with André Cournand and Werner Forssmann for the development of cardiac catheterization and the characterisation of a number of cardiac diseases.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Honor 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Richards was born in Orange, New Jersey. He was educated at the Hotchkiss School in Connecticut, and entered Yale University in 1913. At Yale he studied English and Greek, graduating in 1917 as a member of the senior society Scroll and Key. Career[edit] He joined the United States Army in 1917, and became an artillery instructor. He served from 1918–1919 as an artillery officer in France. When[when?] he returned to the United States, Richards attended Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, graduating with an M.A. in 1922 and his M.D. degree in 1923
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F. Mason Sones
F. Mason Sones, Jr. (October 28, 1918 – August 28, 1985) was an American physician whose pioneering work in cardiac catheterization was instrumental in the development of both coronary artery bypass surgery and interventional cardiology.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Discovery of coronary angiography 3 Later career and awards 4 References 5 NotesEarly life and career[edit] Sones was born in Noxapater, Mississippi[1] to Frank Mason and Myrtle (Bryan) Sones. He graduated from Western Maryland College (now McDaniel College) in 1940 and received his M.D. from the University of Maryland School of Medicine in 1943. In 1942, Sones married Geraldine Newton. The couple had four children, Frank Mason III, Geraldine Patricia, Steven, and David. From 1944 to 1946, he served in the United States Army Air Corps in the Pacific and would later serve as a national consultant to the Air Force
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Radiocontrast
Radiocontrast
Radiocontrast
agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy. Radiocontrast
Radiocontrast
agents are typically iodine, barium-sulphate or gadolinium based compounds. They absorb external X-rays, resulting in decreased exposure on the X-ray
X-ray
detector. This is different from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine which emit radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) functions through different principles and thus utilizes different contrast agents
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Cleveland Clinic
Case Western Reserve University
University
School of Medicine Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine Kent State University
University
College of Podiatric MedicineServicesBeds 1440HelipadsHelipad FAA LID: 6O
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Charles Dotter
Charles Theodore Dotter (14 June 1920 – 15 February 1985) was a pioneering US vascular radiologist who is credited with developing interventional radiology.[2] Dotter, together with his trainee Dr Melvin P. Judkins, described angioplasty in 1964.[3] Dotter received a bachelor of arts degree in 1941 from Duke University. He went to medical school at Cornell, where he met his future wife, Pamela Battie, a head nurse at New York Hospital. They married in 1944. He completed his internship at the United States Naval Hospital in New York State, and his residency at New York Hospital. Dotter invented angioplasty and the catheter-delivered stent, which were first used to treat peripheral arterial disease
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