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Corona (satellite)
The Corona program was a series of American strategic reconnaissance satellites produced and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science & Technology with substantial assistance from the U.S. Air Force. The Corona satellites were used for photographic surveillance of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR), the People's Republic of China, and other areas beginning in June 1959 and ending in May 1972
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Korabl Sputnik 2
Korabl-Sputnik 2[2] (Russian: Корабль-Спутник 2 meaning Ship- Satellite
Satellite
2), also known incorrectly as Sputnik 5 in the West,[3] was a Soviet artificial satellite, and the third test flight of the Vostok spacecraft. It was the first spaceflight to send animals into orbit and return them safely back to Earth. Launched on 19 August 1960, it paved the way for the first human orbital flight, Vostok 1, which was launched less than eight months later. Korabl-Sputnik 2
Korabl-Sputnik 2
was the second attempt to launch a Vostok capsule with dogs on board. The first try on 28 July, carrying a pair named Bars (Snow Leopard aka. Chaika (Seagull)) and Lisichka (Foxie)), had been unsuccessful after the Blok G strap-on suffered a fire and breakdown in one of the combustion chambers, followed by its breaking off of the booster 19 seconds after launch
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Sidney Drell
Sidney David Drell (September 13, 1926 – December 21, 2016) was an American theoretical physicist and arms control expert. At the time of his death, he was professor emeritus at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. Drell was a noted contributor in the fields of quantum electrodynamics and high-energy particle physics. The Drell–Yan process
Drell–Yan process
is partially named for him.Contents1 Biography 2 Awards and honors 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Atlantic City, New Jersey,[1] Drell graduated from Atlantic City High School.[2] He earned his undergraduate degree in physics from Princeton University in 1946, having been admitted at the age of 16.[1] He was awarded a masters in physics in 1947 and received his PhD from the University of Illinois in 1949
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Carl Zeiss AG
Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
(German pronunciation: [ˌkaʁl ˈtsaɪs]), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss. Together with Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
(joined 1866) and Otto Schott (joined 1884) they built a base for modern optics and manufacturing. There are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss AG located in Oberkochen
Oberkochen
with important subsidiaries in Aalen, Göttingen
Göttingen
and Munich, and Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
GmbH
GmbH
located in Jena. Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG is the premier company of the Zeiss Gruppe, one of the two large divisions of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung. The Zeiss Gruppe is located in Heidenheim and Jena
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Petzval Lens
The Petzval objective or Petzval lens, is the first photographic portrait objective lens (160mm focal length) in the history of photography;[1] It was developed by the German-Hungarian mathematics professor Josef Maximilian Petzval
Josef Maximilian Petzval
in 1840 in Vienna,[2] with technical advice provided by Peter Wilhelm Friedrich von Voigtländer (de), the Voigtländer
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Wide-angle Lens
In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane. This type of lens allows more of the scene to be included in the photograph, which is useful in architectural, interior and landscape photography where the photographer may not be able to move farther from the scene to photograph it. Another use is where the photographer wishes to emphasise the difference in size or distance between objects in the foreground and the background; nearby objects appear very large and objects at a moderate distance appear small and far away. This exaggeration of relative size can be used to make foreground objects more prominent and striking, while capturing expansive backgrounds.[1] A wide angle lens is also one that projects a substantially larger image circle than would be typical for a standard design lens of the same focal length
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Stereoscopy
Stereoscopy
Stereoscopy
(also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision[2]. The word stereoscopy derives from Greek στερεός (stereos), meaning 'firm, solid', and σκοπέω (skopeō), meaning 'to look, to see'.[3][4] Any stereoscopic image is called a stereogram. Originally, stereogram referred to a pair of stereo images which could be viewed using a stereoscope. Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth
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Diameter
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle. It can also be defined as the longest chord of the circle. Both definitions are also valid for the diameter of a sphere. In more modern usage, the length of a diameter is also called the diameter. In this sense one speaks of the diameter rather than a diameter (which refers to the line itself), because all diameters of a circle or sphere have the same length, this being twice the radius r. d = 2 r ⇒ r = d 2 . displaystyle d=2rquad Rightarrow quad r= frac d 2 . For a convex shape in the plane, the diameter is defined to be the largest distance that can be formed between two opposite parallel lines tangent to its boundary, and the width is often defined to be the smallest such distance
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Luis Walter Alvarez
Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
(June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1968. The American Journal of Physics
Physics
commented, "Luis Alvarez was one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century."[1] After receiving his PhD
PhD
from the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in 1936, Alvarez went to work for Ernest Lawrence
Ernest Lawrence
at the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California
University of California
in Berkeley. Alvarez devised a set of experiments to observe K-electron capture in radioactive nuclei, predicted by the beta decay theory but never before observed. He produced tritium using the cyclotron and measured its lifetime
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Malvin Ruderman
Malvin Avram Ruderman (born 1927 in New York City) is an American physicist and astrophysicist.Contents1 Education 2 Career 3 Honors 4 ReferencesEducation[edit] Mal Ruderman received his A.B. degree from Columbia University
Columbia University
in 1945. His M.S. degree (1947) and Ph.D. (1951) are from the California Institute of Technology under the supervision of Robert Jay Finkelstein.[1][2] Career[edit] In 1951–53, Ruderman worked at Berkeley's Radiation Laboratory. He became an assistant professor at UC Berkeley in 1953, rising by 1964 to the rank of full professor. He moved to New York University
New York University
in 1964, and to Columbia University
Columbia University
in 1969, becoming Centennial Professor in 1980
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Corona Discharge
A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged. Spontaneous corona discharges occur naturally in high-voltage systems unless care is taken to limit the electric field strength. A corona will occur when the strength (potential gradient) of the electric field around a conductor is high enough to form a conductive region, but not high enough to cause electrical breakdown or arcing to nearby objects
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F-number
The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.[1] It is a dimensionless number that is a quantitative measure of lens speed, and an important concept in photography
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Camera
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The images may be individual still photographs or sequences of images constituting videos or movies. The camera is a remote sensing device as it senses subjects without any contact . The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin
Latin
name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura. The functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye
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Ground (electricity)
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth. Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons. In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground so that if, due to any fault conditions, a "Line" supply voltage connection occurs to any such conductive parts, the current flow will then be such that any protective equipment installed for either overload or "leakage" protection will operate and disconnect the "Line" voltage. This is done to prevent harm resulting to the user from coming in contact with any such dangerous voltage in a situation where the user may, at the same time, also come in contact with an object at ground/earth potential
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General Electric
General Electric
General Electric
(GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York[5] and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.[2] As of 2016, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, current, digital, energy connections, global research, healthcare, lighting, oil and gas, power, renewable energy, transportation, and capital which cater to the needs of financial services, medical devices, life sciences, pharmaceutical, automotive, software development and engineering industries.[6] In 2017, GE ranked among the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
as the thirteenth-largest firm in the U.S
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Rochester, New York
Rochester (/ˈrɒtʃɪstər, ˈrɒtʃɛstər/) is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
in western New York. With a population of 208,880 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City
New York City
and Buffalo. The metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people.[4] Rochester was one of America's first boomtowns, initially due to its flour mills along the Genesee River, and then as a manufacturing hub.[5] Several of the region's universities (notably the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology) have renowned research programs. Rochester is the site of many important inventions and innovations in consumer products. The Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, Bausch & Lomb, Gleason and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products
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