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Core Rope Memory
Core rope memory
Core rope memory
is a form of read-only memory (ROM) for computers, first used in the 1960s by early NASA Mars space probes and then in the Apollo Guidance Computer
Computer
(AGC) designed and programmed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) Instrumentation Lab and built by Raytheon. Contrary to ordinary coincident-current magnetic-core memory, which was used for random access memory (RAM) at the time, the ferrite cores in a core rope are just used as transformers. The signal from a word line wire passing through a given core is coupled to the bit line wire and interpreted as a binary "one", while a word line wire that bypasses the core is not coupled to the bit line wire and is read as a "zero"
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Apollo Program
The Apollo
Apollo
program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon
Moon
from 1969 to 1972. First conceived during Dwight D
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Binary Number
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one). The base-2 numeral system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Each digit is referred to as a bit
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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NCR CRAM
Cram may refer to: Cram (surname), a surname, and list of notable persons having the surname Cram.com, a website for creating and sharing flashcards Cram (Australian game show), television show Cram (game show), a TV game show that aired on the Game Show Network Cram, a fictional type of bread in J. R. R
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Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
Magnetic ink character recognition
Magnetic ink character recognition
code, known in short as MICR code, is a character recognition technology used mainly by the banking industry to streamline the processing and clearance of cheques and other documents. MICR encoding, called the MICR line, is at the bottom of cheques and other vouchers and typically includes the document-type indicator, bank code, bank account number, cheque number, cheque amount (usually added after a cheque is presented for payment), and a control indicator. The format for the bank code and bank account number is country-specific. The technology allows MICR readers to scan and read the information directly into a data-collection device. Unlike barcode and similar technologies, MICR characters can be read easily by humans
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Magnetic Stripe Card
A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or magstripe, is read by swiping past a magnetic reading head. Magnetic stripe cards are commonly used in credit cards, identity cards, and transportation tickets. They may also contain an RFID
RFID
tag, a transponder device and/or a microchip mostly used for business premises access control or electronic payment. Magnetic recording on steel tape and wire was invented in Denmark around 1900 for recording audio.[1] In the 1950s, magnetic recording of digital computer data on plastic tape coated with iron oxide was invented. In 1960, IBM
IBM
used the magnetic tape idea to develop a reliable way of securing magnetic stripes to plastic cards,[2] under a contract with the US government for a security system
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Hard Disk Drive
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk[b] is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads, usually arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces.[2] Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially. HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage, retaining stored data even when powered off.[3][4][5] Introduced by IBM
IBM
in 1956,[6] HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s. Continuously improved, HDDs have maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers
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Magnetic Tape
Magnetic tape
Magnetic tape
is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. It was developed in Germany
Germany
in 1928, based on magnetic wire recording. Devices that record and play back audio and video using magnetic tape are tape recorders and video tape recorders. A device that stores computer data on magnetic tape is known as a tape drive. Magnetic tape
Magnetic tape
revolutionized broadcast and recording. It allowed radio, which had always been broadcast live, to be recorded for later or repeated airing. It allowed gramophone records to be recorded in multiple parts, which were then mixed and edited with tolerable loss in quality
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Wire Recording
Wire
Wire
recording or magnetic wire recording was the first early magnetic recording technology, an analog type of audio storage in which a magnetic recording is made on thin steel wire.[1] The first crude magnetic recorder was invented in 1898 by Valdemar Poulsen. The first magnetic recorder to be made commercially available anywhere was the Telegraphone, manufactured by the American Telegraphone Company, Springfield, Massachusetts. The wire is pulled rapidly across a recording head which magnetizes each point along the wire in accordance with the intensity and polarity of the electrical audio signal being supplied to the recording head at that instant
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Science Channel
Science Channel (often referred to as simply Science) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by Discovery Inc.
Discovery Inc.
The channel features programming focusing on the fields of wilderness survival, ufology, manufacturing, construction, technology, space, prehistory and animal science. As of February 2015, Science is available to approximately 75.5 million pay television households (64.8% of households with at least one television set) in the United States.[1]Contents1 History1.1 High definition2 Programming 3 International 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] In November 1994, Discovery Networks announced plans for four digital channels set to launch in 1996. Discovery originally named the network under the working title Quark!;[2] this was changed before its launch to the Discovery Science Network
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Moon Machines
Moon Machines in the US and UK is a Science
Science
Channel HD documentary miniseries consisting of six episodes documenting the engineering challenges of the Apollo Program
Apollo Program
to land a man on the Moon. It covers everything from the iconic Saturn V
Saturn V
to the Command Module, the Lunar Module, the Space Suits, the Guidance and Control Computer, and the Lunar Rover. It was created by the team who made In the Shadow of the Moon in association with NASA
NASA
to commemorate the agency's fiftieth anniversary in 2008
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Christopher Riley
Christopher Riley
Christopher Riley
(born 1967) is a British writer, broadcaster and film maker specialising in the history of science. He has a Ph.D. from Imperial College, University of London where he pioneered the use of digital elevation models in the study of mountain range geomorphology and evolution. He makes frequent appearances on British television and radio, broadcasting mainly on space flight, astronomy and planetary science and is currently Visiting Professor of science and media at the University of Lincoln.Contents1 Education 2 Career 3 Awards & Honours 4 Films & Television 5 Video Installations 6 Books 7 Articles 8 See also 9 ReferencesEducation[edit] Riley went to school in Cambridge, where he grew up. He studied geology at the University of Leicester
University of Leicester
for his first degree and completed his Ph.D
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Dibner Institute
The Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology (1992–2006) was a research institute established at MIT, and housed in a renovated building (E56) on campus at 38 Memorial Drive, overlooking the Charles River.[1][2][3]Contents1 Description 2 History and development 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] At the heart of the Institute was the Burndy Library on the ground floor, initially containing 37,000 volumes on the history of science and technology collected by the Dibner Fund. The Library also possessed a large collection of antique scientific instruments, such as astrolabes, telescopes, microscopes, early spectrometers, and a Wimshurst machine, which were on public display in a dedicated gallery outside the library. Also on display was a large collection of antique incandescent light bulbs, gas discharge tubes, electronic vacuum tubes, and other early examples of electrical and electronic technology
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Bit
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit)[1] is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications. A binary digit can have only one of two values, and may be physically represented with a two-state device. These state values are most commonly represented as either a 0or1. The two values of a binary digit can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), algebraic signs (+/−), activation states (on/off), or any other two-valued attribute. The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program
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Raytheon
The Raytheon
Raytheon
Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007. Raytheon
Raytheon
is the world's largest producer of guided missiles.[3] Established in 1922, the company reincorporated in 1928 and adopted its present name in 1959. As of 2014 the company had around 63,000 employees worldwide[4] and annual revenues of approximately US$25 billion
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