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Coptic Language
COPTIC or COPTIC EGYPTIAN (Bohairic: ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language
Egyptian language
, a northern Afroasiatic language spoken in Egypt
Egypt
until at least the 17th century. Egyptian began to be written in the Coptic alphabet , an adaptation of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
with the addition of six or seven signs from demotic to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language
Greek language
did not have, in the first century AD. Several distinct Coptic dialects are identified, the most prominent of which are Sahidic, originating in parts of Upper Egypt
Egypt
, and Bohairic, originally from the western Nile Delta
Nile Delta
in Lower Egypt
Egypt

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Persecution Of Copts
Copts
Copts
(Coptic : ⲟⲩⲣⲉⲙ'ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ 'ⲛ'Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ'ⲁⲛⲟⲥ ou.Remenkīmi en.Ekhristianos, literally: Egyptian Christian) are native Egyptian Christians
Christians
, usually Orthodox , who currently make up between 10 and 20% of the population of Egypt
Egypt
— the largest religious minority of that country. While Copts
Copts
have cited instances of persecution throughout their history, Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
has noted "growing religious intolerance" and sectarian violence against Coptic Christians
Christians
in recent years, and a failure by the Egyptian government to effectively investigate properly and prosecute those responsible. Hundreds of Egyptian copts have been killed in sectarian clashes from 2011 to 2017, and many homes and businesses destroyed
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Coptic Nationalism
COPTIC NATIONALISM refers to the nationalism of Copts
Copts
(Coptic : ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ Niremenkīmi Enkhristianos, Egyptian Arabic : أقباط‎ Aqbat), an ethno-religious group that primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt
Egypt
, where they are the largest Christian denomination . CONTENTS * 1 Pharaonism * 2 Coptic identity
Coptic identity
* 3 Ethnic flag (2005) * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography PHARAONISM Main article: Pharaonism Questions of Egyptian identity rose to prominence in Egypt
Egypt
in the 1920s and 1930s as Egyptians sought independence from British occupation. The Pharaonist movement, or Pharaonism, looks to Egypt's pre- Islamic
Islamic
past and argued that Egypt
Egypt
was part of a larger Mediterranean civilization
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Copts In Egypt
COPTS IN EGYPT refers to Coptic people born in or residing in Egypt
Egypt
. Coptic people are the largest ethno-religious minority in Egypt. The largest Coptic Christian group in Egypt
Egypt
is the Coptic Orthodox Church with a population of at least 7,200,000 and the second is the Coptic Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
and the Evangelical Church of Egypt
Egypt
Other estimates of the ethnic Coptic population within Egypt
Egypt
range between 9 and 15 million
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Copts In Sudan
COPTS IN SUDAN may refer to people born in or residing in Sudan
Sudan
of full or partial Coptic origin. Sudan
Sudan
has a native Coptic minority, although many Copts
Copts
in Sudan
Sudan
are descended from more recent Coptic immigrants from Egypt
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Copts In Libya
COPTS are an ethnoreligious group that form the largest Christian group in LIBYA , the Coptic Orthodox Church in the country having an estimated 60,000 adherents. The Coptic Church is known to have historical roots in Libya
Libya
long before the Arabs (and Islam) advanced westward from Egypt into Libya. A part of the community is made up of immigrants from Egypt (see Copts in Egypt
Copts in Egypt
). CONTENTS * 1 Population * 2 History * 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Modern * 3 Churches * 4 Anti-Coptic sentiment * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources POPULATIONThe Coptic population is estimated to number 60,000. The Copts
Copts
are the largest Christian denomination, followed by c. 40,000 Roman Catholics and a small number of Anglicans. They are present in all three major regions
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Coptic Monasticism
COPTIC MONASTICISM is claimed to be the original form of Monasticism as St. Anthony of Egypt
Egypt
became the first one to be called "monk " (Gr: μοναχός) and he was the first to established a Christian monastery which is now known as the Monastery of Saint Anthony
Monastery of Saint Anthony
in the Red Sea
Red Sea
area. St. Anthony's Monastery
Monastery
(also known as the Monastery of Abba Antonious) is now the oldest monastery in the world. Although Saint Anthony's way of life was focused on solidarity, Saint Pachomius
Pachomius
the Cenobite , a Copt from Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
, established communal monasticism in his monasteries in upper Egypt
Egypt
which laid the basic monastic structure for many of the monasteries today in many monastic orders (even outside Coptic Orthodoxy )
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Coptic Music
COPTIC MUSIC is the music sung and played in the Coptic Orthodox Church (Church of Egypt
Egypt
). It consists mainly of chanted hymns in rhythm with instruments such as cymbals (hand and large size) and the triangle . Coptic music is purely religious. Coptic chant is a very old tradition, assumed to have links with the ancient liturgies of Jerusalem or Syria, while some of the melodies had been adopted from Ancient Egyptian burial practices and other rituals; however, manuscripts survive only since recent times and little is known for sure about the older tradition. Until these recent liturgical books , the music was transmitted orally . In the modern chant, there is extensive use of melody types , which allow some improvisation by the singers. The percussion instruments used in the Coptic Church are unusual among Christian liturgies
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Fasting And Abstinence Of The Coptic Orthodox Church Of Alexandria
The Copts
Copts
( Christians
Christians
of Egypt
Egypt
) who belong mostly to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria , observe fasting periods according to the Coptic calendar
Coptic calendar
. These fasting periods are exceeded by no other Christian
Christian
community except the Ethiopian Orthodox Church . Out of the 365 days of the year, the Copts
Copts
fast over 210 days
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Coptic Flag
The COPTIC FLAG was created in 2005 by Coptic activists in different countries to represent the Coptic communities both in Egypt
Egypt
and in the Coptic diaspora . It is not recognized by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria , but many Copts worldwide have adopted it as a symbol of Coptic identity
Coptic identity
. The Coptic flag
Coptic flag
has been officially recognized and adopted by the New Zealand Coptic Association and the Free Copts. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Symbolism * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BACKGROUNDCopts voice opposition to many aspects of Egypt's political life. One of these is the present-day Egyptian flag , which most Copts feel does not represent their Egyptian identity
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Coptic Identity
Copts
Copts
have a long history as a religious minority among Egypt
Egypt
's majority of Muslim adherents. While an integral part of Egyptian society converted from Christianity to Islam
Islam
after the arrival of Islam, the Coptic Christians of Egypt
Egypt
who did not convert remained culturally and religiously distinct from their newly Muslim compatriots. The question of COPTIC IDENTITY was never raised before the rise of pan-Arabism under Nasser
Nasser
in the early 1950s. Up to that point, Egyptian nationalism (also referred to as Pharaonism ) was the major form of expression for Egyptian identity , and both Egyptian Muslims and Egyptian Christians viewed themselves as only Egyptians
Egyptians
without any Arab sentiment
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Coptic Literature
COPTIC LITERATURE is the body of writings in the Coptic language
Coptic language
of Egypt
Egypt
, the last stage of the indigenous Egyptian language
Egyptian language
. It comprises mostly Christian texts dating after the 2nd century AD, but also includes Old Coptic writings that predate the Christian era. There have been only a few attempts to comprehensively present Coptic literature CONTENTS * 1 Religious literature * 2 The Morgan Collection * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links RELIGIOUS LITERATURE See also: Coptic versions of the Bible and Nag Hammadi library
Nag Hammadi library
The writings of Anthony the Great
Anthony the Great
, Pachomius
Pachomius
and Shenouda the Archimandrite are among the earliest examples of Egyptian Christian literature in Coptic
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Coptic Americans
COPTIC AMERICANS are American citizens of Coptic descent or persons of Coptic descent residing in the United States
United States
of America . According to the American Coptic Association, there are approximately 450,000 Copts
Copts
in the United States
United States
since many ethnic Copts
Copts
listed themselves in the 2011 U.S. Census mistakenly as either Egyptians, Sudanese, Libyans or Americans and by this way reducing the ethnic Coptic population in the United States
United States
to not be even included within the 2011 U.S. Census. Estimates for the number of ethnic Copts
Copts
in the US range from 700,000 to more than 1 million. CONTENTS * 1 Immigration history * 2 Notable Coptic Americans
Coptic Americans
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links IMMIGRATION HISTORY St
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Coptic Orthodox Church In The United States
The immigration of the Copts
Copts
to the United States
United States
of America started as early as the late 1940s. After 1952, the rate of Coptic immigration from Egypt
Egypt
to the United States
United States
increased. The first Coptic church in the United States
United States
is St. Mark\'s Coptic Orthodox Church , which was established in the late 1960s in Jersey City
Jersey City
. There are many Coptic Orthodox churches and Congregations in the United States. Estimated numbers of adherents, based on church membership, was between 350,000 and 420,000. Based on the estimates of certain Coptic organizations, the number was between 700,000 and one million in 2002. Currently, there are over 200 parishes in the United States
United States
that serve the expanding Coptic Orthodox population
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Coptic Orthodox Church In South America
The COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH IN SOUTH AMERICA has bishops in Bolivia and Brazil
Brazil
. CONTENTS* 1 History of the Church in Bolivia
Bolivia
* 1.1 Santa Maria y San Marcos Church * 1.1.1 Building the Church * 1.2 The Church of Bolivia
Bolivia
in the twenty-first century * 2 Bishops * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY OF THE CHURCH IN BOLIVIAIn 1997, Fr. Aghathon Amba Boula heard of and began to visit a few Copts
Copts
who were living in Bolivia. He continued to serve them for four years until they requested a permanent priest. Fr. Youssef Amba Boula was sent to serve them. Youssef had minor courses in Spanish prior to coming to Bolivia. He arrived December 14th, 2000. Youssef started services in a rented flat located in a poor area. However, only one Copt remained in Bolivia. The other families returned to Egypt or immigrated to the U.S.A
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Coptic Diaspora
The COPTIC DIASPORA consists of Copts
Copts
who live outside of their primary area of residence within parts of present-day Egypt
Egypt
, Libya and Sudan
Sudan
. The number of Copts
Copts
outside Egypt
Egypt
has sharply increased since the 1960s. The largest Coptic diaspora
Coptic diaspora
populations are in the United States , in Canada
Canada
and in Australia
Australia
, but Copts
Copts
have a presence in many other countries. CONTENTS * 1 Population * 2 Causes and history of the Coptic diaspora
Coptic diaspora
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links POPULATION St. Mark Coptic Orthodox Church in Bellaire, Texas , in the United States
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