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Convention Relating To The Status Of Refugees
The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, also known as the 1951 Refugee
Refugee
Convention, is a United Nations
United Nations
multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. The Convention also sets out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals. The Convention also provides for some visa-free travel for holders of travel documents issued under the convention
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Radio New Zealand International
This article is about RNZ's international radio channel. For its domestic channel, see Radio New Zealand
New Zealand
National. RNZ International
RNZ International
or Radio New Zealand
New Zealand
International (Māori: Ko Te Reo Irirangi o Aotearoa Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa), sometimes abbreviated to RNZI, is a division of Radio New Zealand
New Zealand
and the official international broadcasting station of New Zealand. It broadcasts a variety of news, current affairs and sports programmes in English and news in seven Pacific languages. The station's mission statement requires it to promote and reflect New Zealand
New Zealand
in the Pacific, and better relations between New Zealand
New Zealand
and Pacific countries. As the only shortwave radio station in New Zealand, RNZ International broadcasts to several island nations
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Committee On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights
The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) is a United Nations
United Nations
body of 18 experts that usually meets twice per year in Geneva to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by UN member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Members are elected for a term of four years by States parties in accordance with ECOSOC Resolution 1985/17 of 28 May 1985
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Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
(/dʒɪˈniːvə/, French: Genève [ʒənɛv], Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva], German: Genf [ɡɛnf], Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra], Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland
Switzerland
(after Zürich) and is the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland
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Organisation Of African Unity
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.[1][citation needed] The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means "organ".Contents1 Types 2 Structures2.1 Committees or juries 2.2 Ecologies 2.3 Matrix organization 2.4 Pyramids or hierarchical3 Theories 4 Leadership4.1 Formal organizations 4.2 Informal organizations5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes[edit] There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, political organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and devel
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African Union
The African Union
African Union
(AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
in Egypt. It was established on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa,[6] with the aim of replacing the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
(OAU) established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, with 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states
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Cartagena Declaration
The Cartagena Declaration on Refugees, or just Cartagena Declaration, is a non-binding regional, i.e. Latin-American, instrument for the protection of refugees and was adopted in 1984 by delegates from 10 Latin-American countries: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. The Declaration was since incorporated in national laws and state practice of 14 countries. The declaration is the result of the "Colloquium on International Protection for Refugees and Displaced Persons in Central America, Mexico and Panama", which was held in Cartagena, Colombia
Cartagena, Colombia
from the 19th to the 22nd November 1984
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Legally Binding
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable by law as a binding legal agreement. Contract
Contract
law recognises and governs the rights and duties arising from agreements.[1] Within jurisdictions of the civil law tradition, contract law is a branch of the law of obligations. At common law, formation of a contract generally requires an offer, acceptance, consideration, and a mutual intent to be bound
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International Court Of Justice
The International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court)[1] is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN). It settles legal disputes between member states and gives advisory opinions to authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. It comprises a panel of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council
Security Council
for nine-year terms
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UN Human Rights Committee
The United Nations
United Nations
Human Rights Committee is a United Nations
United Nations
body of 18 experts that meets three times a year for four-week s
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International Sanctions
International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. There are several types of sanctions.Diplomatic sanctions – the reduction or removal of diplomatic ties, such as embassies. Economic sanctions
Economic sanctions
– typically a ban on trade, possibly limited to certain sectors such as armaments
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Supremacy Clause
The Supremacy Clause
Supremacy Clause
of the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
(Article VI, Clause 2) establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the supreme law of the land.[1] It provides that state courts are bound by the supreme law; in case of conflict between federal and state law, the federal law must be applied. Even state constitutions are subordinate to federal law.[2] In essence, it is a conflict-of-laws rule specifying that certain federal acts take priority over any state acts that conflict with federal law
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Public Shaming
Public humiliation
Public humiliation
is the dishonoring showcase of a person, usually an offender or a prisoner, especially in a public place
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Office Of The United Nations High Commissioner For Human Rights
The Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations
United Nations
agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
of 1948. The office was established by the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
on 20 December 1993[3] in the wake of the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights. The office is headed by the High Commissioner for Human Rights, who co-ordinates human rights activities throughout the UN System and supervises the Human Rights Council in Geneva, Switzerland
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Refugee Law
Refugee
Refugee
law is the branch of international law which deals with the rights and protection of refugees. There are differences of opinion among international law scholars as to the relationship between refugee law and international human rights law or humanitarian law. The discussion forms part of a larger discussion on fragmentation of international law.[1] While some scholars conceive each branch as a self-contained regime distinct from other branches, others regard the three branches as forming a larger normative system that seeks to protect the rights of all human beings at all time
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Refugee Travel Document
A refugee travel document (also called a 1951 Convention travel document or Geneva passport) is a travel document issued to a refugee by the state in which she or he normally resides allowing him or her to travel outside that state and to return there. Refugees are unlikely to be able to obtain passports from their state of nationality (from which they have sought asylum) and therefore need travel documents so that they might engage in international travel. The 145 states which are parties to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees are obliged to issue travel documents to refugees lawfully resident in their territory.[1] Refugee
Refugee
travel documents are passport-like booklets. Their cover bears the words "Travel Document" in English and French (and often in the language of the issuing state), as well as the date of the convention: 28 July 1951
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