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Consumption (economics)
CONSUMPTION is a major concept in economics and is also studied in many other social sciences. Economists are particularly interested in the relationship between consumption and income, as modeled with the consumption function. Different schools of economists define production and consumption differently. According to mainstream economists , only the final purchase of goods and services by individuals constitutes consumption, while other types of expenditure — in particular, fixed investment , intermediate consumption , and government spending — are placed in separate categories (See consumer choice ). Other economists define consumption much more broadly, as the aggregate of all economic activity that does not entail the design, production and marketing of goods and services (e.g. the selection, adoption, use, disposal and recycling of goods and services)
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Evolutionary Economics
EVOLUTIONARY ECONOMICS is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology . Much like mainstream economics , it stresses complex interdependencies , competition , growth , structural change , and resource constraints but differs in the approaches which are used to analyze these phenomena. Evolutionary economics
Evolutionary economics
deals with the study of processes that transform economy for firms, institutions, industries, employment, production, trade and growth within, through the actions of diverse agents from experience and interactions, using evolutionary methodology . Evolutionary economics
Evolutionary economics
analyses the unleashing of a process of technological and institutional innovation by generating and testing a diversity of ideas which discover and accumulate more survival value for the costs incurred than competing alternatives
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Education Economics
EDUCATION ECONOMICS or the ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION is the study of economic issues relating to education , including the demand for education, the financing and provision of education, and the comparative efficiency of various educational programs and policies. From early works on the relationship between schooling and labor market outcomes for individuals, the field of the economics of education has grown rapidly to cover virtually all areas with linkages to education
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Expeditionary Economics
EXPEDITIONARY ECONOMICS is an emerging field of economic enquiry that focuses on the rebuilding and reconstructing of economies in post-conflict nations and providing support to disaster-struck nations. The term was first introduced in 2010 in an essay by Carl Schramm , the former President and CEO of the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation . It focuses on the need for good economic planning on the part of developed nations to help prevent the creation of failed states. It also emphasizes the need for the structuring on new firms to rebuild the national economies. Since then, the theory has been used by the U.S. Government and the U.S Army to restructure the economies of countries such as Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and helping Haiti
Haiti
after its severe earthquake . Its aim is to provide economic stabilization and support the counterinsurgency tactics in such nations
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Economic Geography
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. It represents a traditional subfield of the discipline of geography . However, many economists have also approached the field in ways more typical of the discipline of economics . Economic geography
Economic geography
has taken a variety of approaches to many different subject matters, including the location of industries, economies of agglomeration (also known as "linkages"), transportation , international trade , development, real estate , gentrification , ethnic economies, gendered economies, core-periphery theory, the economics of urban form , the relationship between the environment and the economy (tying into a long history of geographers studying culture-environment interaction), and globalization
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Health Economics
HEALTH ECONOMICS is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare . In broad terms, health economists study the functioning of healthcare systems and health-affecting behaviors such as smoking. A seminal 1963 article by Kenneth Arrow , often credited with giving rise to health economics as a discipline, drew conceptual distinctions between health and other goods. Factors that distinguish health economics from other areas include extensive government intervention , intractable uncertainty in several dimensions, asymmetric information , barriers to entry , externalities and the presence of a third-party agent. In healthcare, the third-party agent is the physician, who makes purchasing decisions (e.g., whether to order a lab test, prescribe a medication, perform a surgery, etc.) while being insulated from the price of the product or service
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Economics Of Digitization
The ECONOMICS OF DIGITIZATION is the field of economics that studies how digitization affects markets and how digital data can be used to study economics. Digitization is the process by which technology lowers the costs of storing, sharing, and analyzing data. This process has changed how consumers behave, how industrial activity is organized, and how governments operate. The economics of digitization exists as a distinct field of economics for two reasons. First, new economic models are needed because many traditional assumptions about information no longer holds in a digitized world. Second, the new types of data generated by digitization require new methods to analyze. Research in the economics of digitization touches on several fields of economics including industrial organization, labor economics, and intellectual property. Consequently, many of the contributions to the economics of digitization have also found an intellectual home in these fields
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Development Economics
DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low-income countries . Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development , economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels. Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices and can be implemented at either the domestic or international level. This may involve restructuring market incentives or using mathematical methods such as inter-temporal optimization for project analysis, or it may involve a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods. Unlike in many other fields of economics, approaches in development economics may incorporate social and political factors to devise particular plans
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Spend (The Walking Dead)
"SPEND" is the fourteenth episode of the fifth season and 65th episode overall of the post-apocalyptic horror television series The Walking Dead , which aired on AMC on March 15, 2015. It was written by Matthew Negrete and directed by Jennifer Lynch . It marked Tyler James Williams ' final appearance as supporting character Noah and Daniel Bonjour's final appearance as Aiden Monroe. CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Reception * 2.1 Ratings * 2.2 Critical reception * 3 References * 4 External links PLOTFather Gabriel ( Seth Gilliam ), torn over his loss of faith, tears up a Bible. As Rick ( Andrew Lincoln ) makes his rounds, he passes Jessie 's ( Alexandra Breckenridge ) house and notices her working on one of her sculptures, which has been vandalized. Rick offers to find the culprit, but she brushes him off. Rick is later approached by Jessie's husband Pete (Corey Brill), who tries to cultivate a friendship with him
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Computational Economics
COMPUTATIONAL ECONOMICS is a research discipline at the interface of computer science , economics , and management science . This subject encompasses computational modeling of economic systems , whether agent-based , general-equilibrium , macroeconomic , or rational-expectations , computational econometrics and statistics, computational finance , computational tools for the design of automated internet markets , programming tools specifically designed for computational economics, and pedagogical tools for the teaching of computational economics. Some of these areas are unique to computational economics, while others extend traditional areas of economics by solving problems that are difficult to study without the use of computers and associated numerical methods . Computational economics
Computational economics
uses computer-based economic modeling for the solution of analytically and statistically formulated economic problems
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Cultural Economics
CULTURAL ECONOMICS is the branch of economics that studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes. Here, 'culture' is defined by shared beliefs and preferences of respective groups. Programmatic issues include whether and how much culture matters as to economic outcomes and what its relation is to institutions . Applications include the study of religion , social norms . social identity , fertility , beliefs in redistributive justice , ideology , hatred, terrorism , trust , and the culture of economics. A general analytical theme is how ideas and behaviors are spread among individuals through the formation of social capital , social networks and processes such as social learning , as in the theory of social evolution and information cascades . Methods include case studies and theoretical and empirical modeling of cultural transmission within and across social groups. In 2013 Said E
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Demographic Economics
DEMOGRAPHIC ECONOMICS or POPULATION ECONOMICS is the application of economic analysis to demography , the study of human populations , including size , growth , density , distribution , and vital statistics . Aspects of the subject include * marriage and fertility * the family * divorce * morbidity and life expectancy /mortality * dependency ratios * migration * population growth * population size * public policy * the demographic transition from "population explosion " to (dynamic) stability or decline . Other subfields include measuring value of life and the economics of the elderly and the handicapped and of gender, race, minorities, and non-labor discrimination. In coverage and subfields, it complements labor economics and implicates a variety of other economics subjects
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Industrial Organization
In economics , INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION or INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of (and, therefore, the boundaries between) firms and markets . Industrial organization
Industrial organization
adds real-world complications to the perfectly competitive model, complications such as transaction costs , limited information , and barriers to entry of new firms that may be associated with imperfect competition . It analyzes determinants of firm and market organization and behavior as between competition and monopoly , including from government actions. There are different approaches to the subject. One approach is descriptive in providing an overview of industrial organization, such as measures of competition and the size-concentration of firms in an industry
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Information Economics
INFORMATION ECONOMICS or the ECONOMICS OF INFORMATION is a branch of microeconomic theory that studies how information and information systems affect an economy and economic decisions. Information has special characteristics: It is easy to create but hard to trust. It is easy to spread but hard to control. It influences many decisions. These special characteristics (as compared with other types of goods) complicate many standard economic theories. The subject of "information economics" is treated under Journal of Economic Literature classification code JEL D8 – Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty . The present article reflects topics included in that code. There are several subfields of information economics. Information as signal has been described as a kind of negative measure of uncertainty . It includes complete and scientific knowledge as special cases . The first insights in information economics related to the economics of information goods
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Natural Resource Economics
NATURAL RESOURCE ECONOMICS deals with the supply , demand , and allocation of the Earth
Earth
's natural resources . One main objective of natural resource economics is to better understand the role of natural resources in the economy in order to develop more sustainable methods of managing those resources to ensure their availability to future generations. Resource
Resource
economists study interactions between economic and natural systems, with the goal of developing a sustainable and efficient economy. CONTENTS * 1 Areas of discussion * 2 Perpetual resources vs
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Organizational Economics
ORGANIZATIONAL ECONOMICS (also referred to as economics of organization) involves the use of economic logic and methods to understand the existence, nature, design, and performance of organizations , especially managed ones. Organizational economics
Organizational economics
is primarily concerned with the obstacles to coordination of activities inside and between organizations (firms, alliances, institutions, and market as a whole)
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