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Constitutional Reform In The Philippines
CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM IN THE PHILIPPINES, also known as CHARTER CHANGE or CHA-CHA, refers to the political and legal processes needed to amend the current 1987 Constitution of the Philippines . Under the common interpretation of the Constitution, amendments can be proposed by one of three methods: a People\'s Initiative , a Constituent Assembly or a Constitutional Convention . A fourth method, by both houses passing a joint concurrent resolution , with a three-fourth supermajority , has been proposed by House Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. who subsequently submitted to the House of Representatives "Resolution of Both Houses No. 1". The "simple legislation as the means to amend" would require approval only by both Houses voting separately. All proposed amendments, regardless of the method of proposal, must be ratified by a majority vote in a national referendum . There have been five constitutional conventions in Philippine history: * Tejeros Convention (1897) * Malolos Congress (1899) * 1934 Constitutional Convention * 1973 Constitutional Convention * 1987 Constitutional Commission While no amendment to the 1987 Constitution has succeeded, there has been several high-profile attempts. None reached the ratification by referendum stage
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Constitution (other)
A CONSTITUTION is the highest laws of a sovereign state, a federated state, a country or other polity
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Magna Carta
_MAGNA CARTA LIBERTATUM_ ( Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called MAGNA CARTA (also _Magna Charta_; "(the) Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede , near Windsor , on 15 June 1215. First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons , it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown , to be implemented through a council of 25 barons. Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III , leading to the First Barons\' War . After John's death, the regency government of his young son, Henry III , reissued the document in 1216, stripped of some of its more radical content, in an unsuccessful bid to build political support for their cause. At the end of the war in 1217, it formed part of the peace treaty agreed at Lambeth , where the document acquired the name Magna Carta, to distinguish it from the smaller Charter of the Forest which was issued at the same time. Short of funds, Henry reissued the charter again in 1225 in exchange for a grant of new taxes; his son, Edward I , repeated the exercise in 1297, this time confirming it as part of England's statute law
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State (polity)
In terms of a political entity , a STATE is any politically organized community living under a single system of government . States may or may not be sovereign . For instance, federated states are members of a federal union , and may have only partial sovereignty, but are, nonetheless, states. Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony , in which ultimate sovereignty lies in another state. States that are sovereign are known as sovereign states . The term "state" can also refer to the secular branches of government within a state, often as a manner of contrasting them with churches and civilian institutions . Speakers of American English often use the terms state and government as synonyms , with both words referring to an organized political group that exercises authority over a particular territory. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, but others have been stateless societies . Over time a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as the divine right of kings , the theory of social contract , etc.). In the 21st century, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject
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Constitution Of The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
does not have one specific constitutional document named as such. Instead, the so called CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM is a sum of laws and principles that make up the body politic of the UK. This is sometimes referred to as an "unwritten" or uncodified constitution . The British constitution primarily draws from four sources: statute law (laws passed by the legislature), common law (laws established through court judgments), parliamentary conventions, and works of authority . Similar to a written constitution, this sum also concerns both the relationship between the individual and the state, and the functioning of the legislature, the executive and judiciary. Since the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the concept of parliamentary sovereignty has been the bedrock of the British legislative constitution, that is, the statutes passed by Parliament are the supreme and final source of law in the UK. It follows that Parliament can change the constitution simply by passing new statutes through Acts of Parliament . There has been some debate about whether parliamentary sovereignty remained intact in the light of the UK's membership in the European Union
European Union
(EU), an argument that was used by proponents of leaving the EU in the 2016 referendum vote (" Brexit ")
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Treaty
A TREATY is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations . A treaty may also be known as an (INTERNATIONAL) AGREEMENT, PROTOCOL, COVENANT, CONVENTION, PACT, or EXCHANGE OF LETTERS, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts : both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, and a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law
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International Organization
An INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types: * International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs): non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that operate internationally. These include international non-profit organizations and worldwide companies such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement , International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières . * Intergovernmental organizations , also known as international governmental organizations (IGOs): the type of organization most closely associated with the term 'international organization', these are organizations that are made up primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states ). Notable examples include the United Nations (UN), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe (COE), International Labour Organization (ILO) and International Police Organization (INTERPOL). The UN has used the term "intergovernmental organization" instead of "international organization" for clarity. The first and oldest intergovernmental organization is the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine , created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna . The role of international organizations are helping to set the international agenda, mediating political bargaining , providing place for political initiatives and acting as catalysts for coalition- formation
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Fundamental Rights
CONTENTS * 1 List of important rights * 2 Legal meaning in the United States * 3 Specific jurisdictions * 3.1 Canada * 3.2 European Union * 3.3 India * 3.4 United States * 4 See also * 5 Footnotes LIST OF IMPORTANT RIGHTSSome universally recognized rights seen as fundamental, i.e., contained in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights , the U.N. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights , or the U.N. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights , include the following: * Right to self-determination * Right to liberty * Right to due process of law * Right to freedom of movement * Right to freedom of thought * Right to freedom of religion * Right to freedom of expression * Right to peaceful assembly * Right to freedom of association LEGAL MEANING IN THE UNITED STATESThough many fundamental rights are also widely considered human rights, the classification of a right as "fundamental" invokes specific legal tests courts use to determine the constrained conditions under which the United States government and various state governments may limit these rights. In such legal contexts, courts determine whether rights are fundamental by examining the historical foundations of those rights, and by determining whether their protection is part of a longstanding tradition. Individual states may guarantee other rights as fundamental
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Constitution Of India
The CONSTITUTION OF INDIA is the supreme law of India
India
. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. B. R. Ambedkar , the chairman of the Drafting Committee, is widely considered to be its chief architect. It imparts constitutional supremacy and not parliamentary supremacy , as it is not created by the Parliament but, by a constituent assembly, and adopted by its people, with a declaration in its preamble . Parliament cannot override the constitution . It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. With its adoption, the Union of India
India
became the modern and contemporary Republic
Republic
of India
India
replacing the Government of India
India
Act, 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. To ensure constitutional autochthony , the framers of the constitution repealed the prior Acts of the British Parliament via Article 395 of the constitution. India
India
celebrates its coming into force on 26 January each year, as Republic
Republic
Day
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Sovereign Country
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Indian English
INDIAN ENGLISH is any of the forms of English characteristic of India . English is a _lingua franca _ of India. CONTENTS * 1 English proficiency * 2 Court language * 3 Features of the dialect * 4 History * 5 Phonology * 5.1 Vowels * 5.2 Consonants * 5.3 Spelling pronunciation * 5.4 Supra-segmental features * 6 Morphology and syntax * 7 Numbering system * 8 Vocabulary * 9 Spelling and national differences * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links ENGLISH PROFICIENCYThough English is one of the two official languages of the Union Government of India, only a few hundred thousand Indians have English as their first language. According to 2001 Census , English is known to 12.6% Indians in the 2001 census. An analysis of the 2001 Census of India, concluded that approximately 86 million Indians reported English as their second language, and another 39 million reported it as their third language. No data was available whether these individuals were English speakers or users. According to the 2005 India
India
Human Development Survey , of the 41,554 surveyed households reported that 72 percent of men (29,918) did not speak any English, 28 percent (11,635) spoke at least some English, and 5 percent (2,077, roughly 17.9% of those who spoke at least some English) spoke fluent English
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Constitution Of Monaco
The CONSTITUTION OF MONACO, first adopted in 1911 after the Monegasque Revolution and heavily revised by Prince Rainier III on December 17, 1962, outlines three branches of government, including several administrative offices and a number of councils, who share advisory and legislative power with the Prince . The constitution also defines the line of succession to the Monegasque throne ; this section was modified on April 2, 2002. By word count, it is the shortest constitution in the world currently in force. CONTENTS * 1 Executive branch * 2 Legislative branch * 3 Judicial branch * 4 References * 5 External links EXECUTIVE BRANCHThe Prince retains the highest executive power, but the principality's head of government is the Minister of State , who presides over a six-member Council of Government , helps advise the Prince, and is responsible for enforcing the laws. The principality's local affairs (i.e., the administration of the four quarters of Monaco-Ville , La Condamine , Monte Carlo , and Fontvieille ) are directed by the Communal Council , which consists of fifteen elected members and is presided over by the Mayor
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French (language)
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French. French is an official language in 29 countries , most of which are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), the community of 84 countries which share the official use or teaching of French
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus
Plautus
and Terence
Terence

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Roman Emperor
The ROMAN EMPEROR was the ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title _ Augustus
Augustus
_ or _Caesar _. Another title often used was _imperator _, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title _princeps _ (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably _ Princeps
Princeps
Senatus _, _ Consul
Consul
_ and _ Pontifex Maximus
Pontifex Maximus
_. The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate ; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both. The first emperors reigned alone; later emperors would sometimes rule with co-Emperors and divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. The first emperor, Augustus
Augustus
, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus
Augustus
could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, Tiberius
Tiberius
, could not convincingly make the same claim
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Canon Law
CANON LAW is the body of laws and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church (both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches ), the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion . The way that such church law is legislated , interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was originally a rule adopted by a church council ; these canons formed the foundation of canon law
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