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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten . While most monarchs may hold formal authority and the government may legally operate in the monarch's name, in the form typical in Europe the monarch no longer personally sets public policy or chooses political leaders. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor , paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay , has defined a constitutional monarch as "a sovereign who reigns but does not rule"
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Forms Of Government
A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
, the word "government" is also used more narrowly to refer to the collective group of people that exercises executive authority in a state. This usage is analogous to what is called an "administration " in American English
American English
. Furthermore, especially in American English, the concepts of "the state" and "the government" may be used synonymously to refer to the person or group of people exercising authority over a politically organized territory. Finally, government is also sometimes used in English as a synonym for governance . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislators , administrators , and arbitrators . Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of government, or form of state governance, refers to the set of political systems and institutions that make up the organisation of a specific government. Government of any kind currently affects every human activity in many important ways. For this reason, political scientists generally argue that government should not be studied by itself; but should be studied along with anthropology , economics , environmentalism , history , philosophy , science and sociology
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Separatism
A common definition of SEPARATISM is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession , separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy. While some critics may equate separatism with religious segregation , racist segregation , or sexist segregation , most separatists argue that separation by choice is not the same as government-enforced segregation and may serve useful purposes. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism , as has been discussed online. Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics , "political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups". Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination. However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements as opposed to less ambitious identity movements
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Associated State
An ASSOCIATED STATE is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate , is adopted. The details of such FREE ASSOCIATION are contained in United Nations General Assembly resolution 1541 (XV) Principle VI, a Compact of Free Association or Associated Statehood Act and are specific to the countries involved. In the case of the Cook Islands and Niue
Niue
, the details of their free association arrangement are contained in several documents, such as their respective constitutions, the 1983 Exchange of Letters between the governments of New Zealand
New Zealand
and the Cook Islands, and the 2001 Joint Centenary Declaration. Free associated states can be described as independent or not, but free association is not a qualification of an entity's statehood or status as a subject of international law. Informally it can be considered more widely: from a post-colonial form of amical protection , or protectorate , to confederation of unequal members when the lesser partner(s) delegate(s) to the major one (often the former colonial power) some authority normally exclusively retained by a sovereign state, usually in such fields as defense and foreign relations, while often enjoying favorable economic terms such as market access
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Dominion
DOMINIONS were semi-independent polities under the British Crown , constituting the British Empire
Empire
, beginning with Canadian Confederation
Confederation
in 1867. They included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland , South Africa
South Africa
, and the Irish Free State , and then from the late 1940s also India , Pakistan
Pakistan
, and Ceylon
Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
). The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", and the 1931 Statute of Westminster granted them full legislative independence. Earlier usage of _dominion_ to refer to a particular territory dates to the 16th century and was used to describe Wales
Wales
from 1535 to 1801 and New England between 1686 and 1689
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Chiefdom
A CHIEFDOM is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship , and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group
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Federalism
FEDERALISM is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism of the United States of America under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism , in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, and from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level. It represents the central form in the pathway of regional integration or separation, bounded on the less integrated side by confederalism and on the more integrated side by devolution within a unitary state. Leading examples of the federation or federal state include the Russian Federation , the United States , USSR , Canada , Mexico , Brazil , Germany , Switzerland , Australia and India
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Federation
A FEDERATION (also known as a _federal state_) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. The governmental or constitutional structure found in a federation is considered to be federalist, or to be an example of federalism . It can be considered the opposite of another system, the unitary state . France , for example, has always been unitary. Neighboring Austria and its _Bundesländer _ was a unitary state with administrative divisions that became federated through the implementation of the Austrian Constitution following the 1918 collapse of Austria-Hungary
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Confederation
A CONFEDERATION (also known as a CONFEDERACY or LEAGUE) is a union of sovereign states (United States), united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states. Usually created by a treaty , confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issues, such as defence, foreign relations, internal trade or currency, with the general government being required to provide support for all its members. Confederalism represents a main form of inter-governmentalism, this being defined as ‘any form of interaction between states which takes place on the basis of sovereign independence. The nature of the relationship among the member states constituting a confederation varies considerably. Likewise, the relationship between the member states and the general government, and the distribution of powers among them is highly variable. Some looser confederations are similar to international organisations . Other confederations with stricter rules may resemble federal systems . Since the member states of a confederation retain their sovereignty, they have an implicit right of secession . Political philosopher Emmerich Vattel observed: ‘Several sovereign and independent states may unite themselves together by a perpetual confederacy without each in particular ceasing to be a perfect state. … The deliberations in common will offer no violence to the sovereignty of each member’
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Devolution
DEVOLUTION is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization . Devolved territories have the power to make legislation relevant to the area. Devolution differs from federalism in that the devolved powers of the subnational authority may be temporary and are reversible, ultimately residing with the central government. Thus, the state remains _de jure _ unitary . Legislation creating devolved parliaments or assemblies can be repealed or amended by central government in the same way as any statute. In federal systems , by contrast, sub-unit government is guaranteed in the constitution , so the powers of the sub-units cannot be withdrawn unilaterally by the central government (i.e. without the consent of the sub-units being granted through the process of constitutional amendment). The sub-units therefore have a lower degree of protection under devolution than under federalism
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Supranational Union
A SUPRANATIONAL UNION is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The concept of _supranational union_ is sometimes used to describe the European Union (EU), as a new type of political entity . The EU is the only entity which provides for international popular elections, going beyond the level of political integration normally afforded by international treaty . The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose, undefined sense in other contexts, sometimes as a substitute for international, transnational or global. Another method of decision-making in international organisations is intergovernmentalism , in which state governments play a more prominent role
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Empire
An EMPIRE is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire , French Empire , Russian Empire , Byzantine Empire or Roman Empire ". An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire , or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire . Aside from the more formal usage, the term "empire" can also be used to refer to a large-scale business enterprise (e.g. a transnational corporation ), a political organisation controlled by a single individual (a political boss ) or a group (political bosses). The term "empire" is associated with other words such as imperialism , colonialism , and globalization . Empire is often used to describe a displeasure to overpowering situations. An imperial political structure can be established and maintained in two ways: (i) as a territorial empire of direct conquest and control with force or (ii) as a coercive, hegemonic empire of indirect conquest and control with power. The former method provides greater tribute and direct political control, yet limits further expansion because it absorbs military forces to fixed garrisons. The latter method provides less tribute and indirect control, but avails military forces for further expansion
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Hegemony
HEGEMONY (UK : /hᵻˈɡɛməni/ or /hᵻˈdʒɛməni/ , US : /hᵻˈdʒɛməni/ _ pronunciation (help ·info ) or /ˈhɛdʒᵻˌmoʊni/ ; Greek : ἡγεμονία hēgemonía_, "leadership, rule") is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece (8th century BCE – 6th century CE), _hegemony_ denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the _hegemon_. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu". Later, it could be used to mean "a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society." Also, it could be used for the geopolitical and the cultural predominance of one country over others; from which was derived _hegemonism_, as in the idea that the Great Powers meant to establish European hegemony over Asia and Africa . The Marxist theory of cultural hegemony , associated particularly with Antonio Gramsci , is the idea that the ruling class can manipulate the value system and mores of a society, so that their view becomes the world view (_ Weltanschauung _): in Terry Eagleton's words, "Gramsci normally uses the word hegemony to mean the ways in which a governing power wins consent to its rule from those it subjugates"
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Unitary State
A UNITARY STATE is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 192 UN member states , 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute , the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is an example of a unitary state. Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland have a degree of autonomous devolved power, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution ( England does not have any devolved power). Many unitary states have no areas possessing a degree of autonomy. In such countries, sub-national regions cannot decide their own laws. Examples are the Republic of Ireland and the Kingdom of Norway
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Administrative Division
An ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION, UNIT, ENTITY, AREA or REGION, also referred to as a SUBNATIONAL ENTITY, CONSTITUENT UNIT, or COUNTRY SUBDIVISION, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration . Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments . Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. For example, a country may be divided into provinces , which, in turn, are divided into counties , which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities ; and so on. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories , with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control. However, the term "administrative division" can include dependent territories as well as accepted administrative divisions (for example, in geographical databases ). For clarity and convenience the standard neutral reference for the largest administrative subdivision of a country is called the "first-level administrative division" or "first administrative level". Next smaller is called "second-level administrative division" or "second administrative level"
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Democracy
DEMOCRACY (Greek : δημοκρατία, _dēmokratía_ literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament . Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of the majority". Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle repeatedly for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules. Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic , where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity . The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents
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