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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Cellular Democracy
As developed by geolibertarian political economist Fred E. Foldvary , CELLULAR DEMOCRACY is a model of democracy based on multi-level bottom-up structure based on either small neighborhood governmental districts or contractual communities. CONTENTS * 1 Councils * 2 Secession * 3 Taxation * 4 Barangay * 5 See also * 6 References COUNCILSIn cellular democracy, a jurisdiction such as a county or city is divided into neighborhood districts with a population of about 500 people, with about 100 to 200 households. The voters in the district would elect a council. The small size of districts would allow for more informed voters at a smaller cost. Representatives, plus one alternate, would be elected to the council. This would be a "level-1 council". A region containing 10 to 20 neighborhood districts would then vote for a "level-2 council"
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Social Democracy
SOCIAL DEMOCRACY is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal-democratic polity and capitalist economy, as well as a policy regime involving a commitment to representative and participatory democracy , measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest and welfare state provisions. Social democracy
Social democracy
thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic, egalitarian and solidaristic outcomes; and is often associated with the set of socioeconomic policies that became prominent in Northern and Western Europe—particularly the Nordic model
Nordic model
in the Nordic countries —during the latter half of the 20th century
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Sortition
In governance , SORTITION (also known as ALLOTMENT or DEMARCHY) selects political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates. The logic behind the sortition process originates from the idea that “power corrupts.” For that reason, when the time came to choose individuals to be assigned to empowering positions, the ancient Athenians resorted to choosing by lot. In ancient Athenian democracy , SORTITION was therefore the traditional and primary method for appointing political officials, and its use was regarded as a principal characteristic of true democracy . Today, sortition is commonly used to select prospective jurors in common law -based legal systems and is sometimes used in forming citizen groups with political advisory power (citizens\' juries or citizens\' assemblies )
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Multi-party System
A MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition . Multi-party systems tend to be more common in parliamentary systems than presidential systems , and far more common in countries that use proportional representation compared to countries that use first-past-the-post elections. First-past-the-post requires concentrated areas of support for large representation in the legislature whereas proportional representation better reflects the range of a population's views. Proportional systems have multi-member districts with more than one representative elected from a given district to the same legislative body, and thus a greater number of viable parties. Duverger\'s Law states that the number of viable political parties is one plus the number of seats in a district
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Separation Of Powers
The SEPARATION OF POWERS, often imprecisely and metonymically used interchangeably with the TRIAS POLITICA principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state). Under this model, the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature , an executive , and a judiciary , which is the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in some parliamentary systems where the executive and legislature (and sometimes parts of the judiciary) are unified. Separation of powers, therefore, refers to the division of responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another. The intent is to prevent the concentration of power and provide for checks and balances
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Meritocracy
MERITOCRACY (merit, from Latin
Latin
mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος kratos "strength, power") is a political philosophy holding that power should be vested in individuals almost exclusively based on ability and talent. Advancement in such a system is based on performance measured through examination and/or demonstrated achievement in the field where it is implemented
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Westminster System
The WESTMINSTER SYSTEM is a parliamentary system of government modelled after that which developed in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
, the seat of the British parliament . The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature . It is used, or was once used, in the national legislatures and subnational legislatures of most former British Empire colonies upon gaining responsible government , beginning with the first of the Canadian provinces in 1848 and the six Australian colonies between 1855 and 1890. However, some former colonies have since adopted either the presidential system ( Nigeria
Nigeria
for example) or a hybrid system (like South Africa
South Africa
) as their form of government
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Fusion Of Powers
FUSION OF POWERS is a feature of some parliamentary democracies , especially those following the Westminster system
Westminster system
, where the executive and legislative branches of government are intermingled. It is often contrasted with the more strict separation of powers found in most Semi-presidential and presidential democracies . Fusion of powers exists in many, if not a majority, of parliamentary democracies, and does so by design. The system first arose as a result of political evolution in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
over many centuries, as the powers of the monarch became constrained by Parliament . The term fusion of powers itself is believed to have been coined by the British constitutional expert, Walter Bagehot
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Vassal State
A VASSAL STATE is any state that is subordinate to another. The vassal in these cases is the ruler, rather than the state itself. Being a vassal most commonly implies providing military assistance to the dominant state when requested to do so; it sometimes implies paying tribute , but a state which does so is better described as a tributary state . In simpler terms the vassal state would have to provide military power to the dominant state. Today, more common terms are puppet state , protectorate or associated state
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Athenian Democracy
ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis ) of Athens , comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica
Attica
, and is the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens'. It was a system of direct democracy , in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills. Participation was not open to all residents: to vote one had to be an adult, male citizen i.e. neither a resident alien nor a slave , and the number of these "varied between 30,000 and 50,000 out of a total population of around 250,000 to 300,000" or "no more than 30 percent of the total adult population." The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles
Pericles

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Types Of Democracy
TYPES OF DEMOCRACY refers to kinds of governments or social structures which allow people to participate equally, either directly or indirectly. CONTENTS * 1 Direct democracies * 2 Representative democracies * 3 Types based on location * 4 Types based on level of freedom * 5 Religious democracies * 6 Other types of democracy * 7 See also * 7.1 Further types * 8 References * 9 External links DIRECT DEMOCRACIESA direct democracy or pure democracy is a type of democracy where the people govern directly. It requires wide participation of citizens in politics. Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
or classical democracy refers to a direct democracy developed in ancient times in the Greek city-state of Athens. A popular democracy is a type of direct democracy based on referendums and other devices of empowerment and concretization of popular will
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Oligarchy
OLIGARCHY (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command') is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. These people might be distinguished by nobility , wealth, family ties, education or corporate, religious or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have often been tyrannical , relying on public obedience or oppression to exist. Aristotle
Aristotle
pioneered the use of the term as a synonym for rule by the rich, for which another term commonly used today is plutocracy
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Aristocracy
ARISTOCRACY (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power ") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class . The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best". At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece , the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy , rule by an individual. In later times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class , and was contrasted with democracy . CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading CONCEPTThe concept evolved in Ancient Greece, whereby a council of leading citizens was commonly empowered and contrasted with representative democracy , in which a council of citizens was appointed as the "senate" of a city state or other political unit
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Associated State
An ASSOCIATED STATE is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate , is adopted. The details of such FREE ASSOCIATION are contained in United Nations General Assembly resolution 1541 (XV) Principle VI, a Compact of Free Association or Associated Statehood Act and are specific to the countries involved. In the case of the Cook Islands and Niue , the details of their free association arrangement are contained in several documents, such as their respective constitutions, the 1983 Exchange of Letters between the governments of New Zealand and the Cook Islands, and the 2001 Joint Centenary Declaration
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Dominion
DOMINIONS were semi-independent polities under the British Crown , constituting the British Empire , beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867. They included Canada , Australia , New Zealand , Newfoundland , South Africa , and the Irish Free State , and then from the late 1940s also India , Pakistan , and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka ). The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", and the 1931 Statute of Westminster confirmed their full legislative independence. Earlier usage of dominion to refer to a particular territory dates to the 16th century and was used to describe Wales from 1535 to 1801 and New England between 1686 and 1689
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