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Constitution Of The Philippines
The CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES (Filipino : _Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas_) is the constitution or supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines . Its final draft was completed by the Constitutional Commission on October 12, 1986 and was ratified by a nationwide plebiscite on February 2, 1987. Three other constitutions have effectively governed the country in its history: the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution, the 1973 Constitution, and the 1986 Freedom Constitution. The earliest constitution establishing a "Philippine Republic," the 1899 Malolos Constitution, was never fully implemented throughout the Philippines and did not establish a state that was internationally recognized, due in great part to the impending American occupation during its adoption
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Ratification
RATIFICATION is a principal 's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal. Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty. The term applies to private contract law , international treaties , and constitutions in federations such as the United States and Canada. The term is also used in parliamentary procedure in deliberative assemblies
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House Of Representatives Of The Philippines
Since July 25, 2016 * _Vacant_ * Pia Cayetano (Nacionalista ) * Gwendolyn Garcia ( PDP-Laban ) * Mylene Garcia-Albano ( PDP-Laban ) * Sharon Garin (AAMBIS-OWA Partylist) Since August 15, 2016 MAJORITY FLOOR LEADER Rodolfo Fariñas (Nacionalista ) Since July 25, 2016 MINORITY FLOOR LEADER Danilo E. Suarez (Lakas ) Since July 27, 2016 STRUCTURE SEATS 297 representatives 238 from geographical districts 59 party-list representatives POLITICAL GROUPS * PDP-Laban (123) * NPC (33) * Liberal (27) * NUP (20) * Nacionalista (19) * Lakas (5) * UNA (3) * LDP (1) * CDP (1) * Local parties (3) * Independent (1) * Sectoral (57) * Vacant (4) COMMITTEES 58 standing committees and 14 special committees LENGTH OF TERM 3 years AUTHORITY Article VI, Constitution of the Philippines ELECTIONS VOTING SYSTEM Parallel voting LAST ELECTION May 9, 2016 NEXT ELECTION May 13, 2019 REDISTRICTING Districts are redistricted by Congress after each census (has never been done since 1987) By statute (most frequent method)
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Quezon City
QUEZON CITY (/ˈkɛzɒn/ _KEZ-on_ ; Filipino : _Lungsod Quezon_, Tagalog pronunciation: ; Spanish : _Ciudad Quezón_ ; also known as QC) is the most populous city in the Philippines . It was founded by and named after Manuel L. Quezon , the 2nd President of the Philippines to replace Manila as the national capital . The city eventually became the capital of the Philippines from 1948-1976. It is the largest city in terms of population and land area in Metro Manila , the National Capital Region of the Philippines . Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon Province , which was also named after the president. It is the largest city in Metro Manila in terms of land area. Quezon City is the site of many government offices, the most important of which are the Batasang Pambansa Complex – the seat of the House of Representatives (the lower chamber of the Philippine Congress ), and the Quezon City Reception House – the current seat of the Vice President of the Philippines . Quezon City also hosts the University of the Philippines Diliman –the national university–and Ateneo de Manila University . The Quezon Memorial Circle is a national park and shrine located in Quezon City
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Philippine Constitutional Commission Of 1986
------------------------- * SENATE * Senate President Aquilino Pimentel III ------------------------- * HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES * Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez
Pantaleon Alvarez
* Districts * Party-list representation -------------------------* Local legislatures * ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly * Provinces * Cities * Municipalities * Barangays Executive * PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES * Rodrigo Duterte * VICE PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES *
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Constitution
A CONSTITUTION is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. _constitute_, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a _written_ constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a _codified_ constitution. Some constitutions (such as the constitution of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
) are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within states , a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights
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Filipino Language
FILIPINO /ˌfɪlɪˈpiːnoʊ/ (_ listen ) (Wikang Filipino_ ), in this usage, refers to the national language of the Philippines . Filipino is also designated, along with English , as an official language of the country. It is the standard register of the Tagalog language , an Austronesian , regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population , while 45 million speak Filipino as their second language . Filipino is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the _ Ethnologue _. Officially, Filipino is defined by the Commission on the Filipino Language (_Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino_ in Filipino or simply KWF) as "the native language, spoken and written, in Metro Manila , the National Capital Region, and in other urban centers of the archipelago." Filipino is taken to be a pluricentric language . Indeed, there have been observed "emerging varieties of Filipino which deviate from the grammatical properties of Tagalog" in Cebu , Davao City and Iloilo which together with Metro Manila form the four largest metropolitan areas in the Philippines. In reality, however, Filipino has been variously described as "simply Tagalog in syntax and grammar, with no grammatical element or lexicon coming from ..
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Philippines
Coordinates : 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic of the Philippines _Republika ng Pilipinas_ (Filipino ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa
Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa
" "For God, People, Nature, and Country" ANTHEM: _ Lupang Hinirang
Lupang Hinirang
_ _Chosen Land_ GREAT SEAL _ Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas _ (Tagalog) Great Seal of the Philippines CAPITAL
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People Power Revolution
Revolutionary victory * Removal of Ferdinand Marcos from office End of Marcos Era (1965-1986) * Marcos exiled to Hawaii * Start of the Fifth Philippine Republic * Corazon Aquino becomes President of the Philippines PARTIES TO THE CIVIL CONFLICT PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTIONARIES Political groups: * UNIDO * PDP-Laban * Liberal Party Military defectors: * Reform the Armed Forces Movement * Defected soldiers Others: * Anti-Marcos civilian protestersReligious groups: * Archdiocese of Manila * CBCP * Protestant Churches of The Philippines Militant groups: * Bagong Alyansang Makabayan * Kilusang Mayo Uno * League of Filipino Students * Christians for National Liberation MARCOS GOVERNMENT * Armed Forces of the Philippines * Forces loyal to Marcos * Presidential Security Group Government Parties: * Kilusang Bagong Lipunan LEAD FIGURES Corazon Aquino Salvador Laurel Juan Ponce Enrile Fidel V
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Corazon Aquino
PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES ------------------------- * People Power Revolution * Presidency * Communist insurgency * Moro conflict * 1986–90 coup attempts * Mendiola massacre * 1987 Philippine Constitution * Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program * 1989 civil unrest * 1990 Luzon earthquake * 1991 Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
eruption -------------------------POST-PRESIDENCY * Death and Funeral * v * t * e MARIA CORAZON "CORY" COJUANGCO AQUINO (_née _ SUMULONG; January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office. She was the first democratically-elected president since Diosdado Macapagal left office in 1965 and the first female president in Asia
Asia
. Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution , which toppled the 21-year authoritarian rule of President Ferdinand E. Marcos
Ferdinand E. Marcos
and restored democracy to the Philippines
Philippines
. She was named _Time _ magazine's "Woman of the Year " in 1986. Prior to this, she had not held any other elective office. A self-proclaimed "plain housewife ", she was married to Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. , the staunchest critic of President Marcos
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Batasang Pambansa
The BATASANG PAMBANSâ (often referred to simply as just the BATASAN; English : NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, literally "National Legislature") was the former parliament of the Philippines
Philippines
, established as an interim assembly in 1978 and later as an official body in 1984. It was the fourth unicameral parliament in Philippine history . Members of the Batasang Pambansâ were referred to as "Mambabatas Pambansâ," (English : Member of Parliament, literally "national lawmaker"), shortened to "MP," similar to the Westminster system . The Batasan was instituted under the 1973 Constitution promulgated by then-President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
, replacing the earlier Congress of the Philippines
Philippines
established by the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution . It was abolished immediately after the People Power Revolution in 1986, and Congress was restored with the passage of the 1987 Constitution. HISTORYThe original provisions of the 1973 Constitution , which was ratified on 17 January 1973, provided for the establishment of a unicameral National Assembly
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Cecilia Muñoz-Palma
CECILIA MUñOZ-PALMA (November 22, 1913 — January 2, 2006) was a Filipino jurist and the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Philippines
. She was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
on October 29, 1973, and served until she reached the then-mandatory retirement age of 65. While on the Court, Muñoz-Palma penned several opinions adverse to the martial law government of her appointer, President Marcos. After retiring from the Court, she became a leading figure in the political opposition against Marcos, and was elected to the Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
as an Assemblywoman from Quezon City
Quezon City
. When Corazon Aquino was installed as President following the 1986 People Power Revolution , Muñoz-Palma was appointed chairwoman of the 1986 Constitutional Commission that drafted the 1987 Constitution
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Clark Air Base
CLARK AIR BASE is a Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force
base on Luzon Island in the Philippines
Philippines
, located 3 miles (4.8 km) west of Angeles , about 40 miles (64 km) northwest of Metro Manila . Clark Air Base
Clark Air Base
was previously a United States
United States
military facility, operated by the U.S. Air Force under the aegis of Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) and their predecessor organizations from 1903 to 1991. The base covered 14.3 square miles (37 km2) with a military reservation extending north that covered another 230 square miles (600 km2). The base was a stronghold of the combined Filipino and American forces during the final months of World War II
World War II
and a backbone of logistical support during the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
until 1975. Following the departure of American forces in 1991, the base eventually became the site of Clark International Airport , the Clark Freeport Zone and the Air Force City of the Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force
. In April 2016, an "Air Contingent" of USAF A-10s and HH-60s was deployed from U.S. air bases in Pyeongtaek and Okinawa to Clark
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Subic Bay Naval Base
NAVAL BASE SUBIC BAY was a major ship-repair, supply, and rest and recreation facility of the Spanish Navy and subsequently the United States Navy located in Olongapo
Olongapo
, Zambales
Zambales
, Philippines. The base was 262 square miles, about the size of Singapore. The Navy Exchange had the largest volume of sales of any exchange in the world, and the Naval Supply Depot handled the largest volume of fuel oil of any navy facility in the world. The naval base was the largest overseas military installation of the United States
United States
Armed Forces after Clark Air Base in Angeles City was closed in 1991. Following its closure in 1992, it was transformed into the Subic Bay
Subic Bay
Freeport Zone by the Philippine government
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Wikisource
WIKISOURCE is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki , operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the _Déclaration universelle des Droits de l\'Homme_ ), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name PROJECT SOURCEBERG, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg . The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later. The project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is also cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration . The project holds works that are either in the public domain or freely licensed ; professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products ; and are verifiable. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of other digital libraries
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Right To Due Process
DUE PROCESS is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person. Due process balances the power of law of the land and protects the individual person from it. When a government harms a person without following the exact course of the law, this constitutes a due process violation, which offends the rule of law . Due process has also been frequently interpreted as limiting laws and legal proceedings (see substantive due process ) so that judges, instead of legislators, may define and guarantee fundamental fairness, justice, and liberty. That interpretation has proven controversial. Analogous to the concepts of natural justice , and procedural justice used in various other jurisdictions, the interpretation of due process is sometimes expressed as a command that the government must not be unfair to the people or abuse them physically. The term is not used in contemporary English law, but two similar concepts are natural justice , which generally applies only to decisions of administrative agencies and some types of private bodies like trade unions, and the British constitutional concept of the rule of law as articulated by A. V. Dicey and others. However, neither concept lines up perfectly with the American theory of due process, which, as explained below, presently contains many implied rights not found in either ancient or modern concepts of due process in England
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