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Conservatism
Conservatism
Conservatism
is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, human imperfection, organic society, hierarchy and authority and property rights.[1] Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as monarchy, religion, parliamentary government and property rights with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity[2] while the more extreme elements called reactionaries oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were".[3][4] The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand[5] during the period of Bourbon restoration
Bourbon restoration
that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution
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Ivan Kireyevsky
Ivan Vasilyevich Kireyevsky (Russian: Ива́н Васи́льевич Кире́евский; 3 April 1806 in Moscow – 23 June 1856 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian literary critic and philosopher who, together with Aleksey Khomyakov, is credited as a co-founder of the Slavophile
Slavophile
movement.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Later life and ideas 3 See also 4 ReferencesEarly life and career[edit] Ivan Kireyevsky
Ivan Kireyevsky
and his brother Pyotr were born into a cultivated noble family of considerable means. Their father was known for hating French atheism so passionately that he would burn heaps of Voltaire's books, acquired specifically for the purpose;[1] his fatal disease was contracted while healing the wounded soldiers during the French invasion of Russia
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Friedrich Von Gentz
Friedrich
Friedrich
may refer to: Names[edit] Friedrich
Friedrich
(surname), people with the surname Friedrich Friedrich
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Rule Of Law
The rule of law is the principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by decisions of individual government officials. It primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, particularly as a constraint upon behaviour, including behaviour of government officials.[2] The phrase can be traced back to 16th century Britain, and in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford
Samuel Rutherford
used the phrase in his argument against the divine right of kings.[3] John Locke
John Locke
wrote that freedom in society means being subject only to laws made by a legislature that apply to everyone, with a person being otherwise free from both governmental and private restrictions upon liberty. The "rule of law" was further popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A. V. Dicey
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Private Property
Private property
Private property
is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.[1] Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities.[2][3] Private property
Private property
can be either personal property (consumption goods) or capital goods. Private property is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system.[4]Contents1 History 2 Economics 3 Criticism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Gate with a private property sign.Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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Karl Ludwig Von Haller
Ludwig
Ludwig
may refer to: Ludwig
Ludwig
van Beethoven, German composer Ludwig
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John Henry Newman
John Henry Newman, Cong. Orat. (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century. He was known nationally by the mid-1830s.[5] Originally an evangelical Oxford University
Oxford University
academic and priest in the Church of England, Newman then became drawn to the high-church tradition of Anglicanism. He became known as a leader of, and an able polemicist for, the Oxford
Oxford
Movement, an influential and controversial grouping of Anglicans who wished to return to the Church of England many Catholic beliefs and liturgical rituals from before the English Reformation. In this the movement had some success
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Aleksey Khomyakov
Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov (Russian: Алексе́й Степа́нович Хомяко́в) (May 13 (O.S. May 1) 1804 in Moscow
Moscow
– October 5 (O.S. September 23), 1860 in Moscow) was a Russian theologian, philosopher, poet and amateur artist. He co-founded the Slavophile
Slavophile
movement along with Ivan Kireyevsky, and he became one of its most distinguished theoreticians. His son Nikolay Khomyakov was a speaker of the State Duma.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Khomyakov's whole life was centred on Moscow. He viewed this "thousand-domed city" as the epitome of the Russian way of life. Equally successful as a landlord and conversationalist, he published very little during his lifetime
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Guillaume Groen Van Prinsterer
Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer
Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer
(21 August 1801 – 19 May 1876), Dutch politician and historian, was born at Voorburg, near The Hague.Contents1 Overview 2 Publications 3 Thoughts 4 Works in English translation 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksOverview[edit] Groen is a Dutch historical icon.[1] He was an educated and devout man of the Dutch middle class (his father, Petrus Jacobus Groen van Prinsterer, was a physician). Being a devout Christian, he never left the Dutch Reformed Church, the state church of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and of its Royal Family, in spite of its sorry state, in his view
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Friedrich Julius Stahl
Friedrich Julius Stahl
Friedrich Julius Stahl
(16 January 1802 – 10 August 1861), German constitutional lawyer, political philosopher and politician.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born at Würzburg, of Jewish parentage, as Julius Jolson,[1] he was brought up strictly in the Jewish religion and was allowed to attend the gymnasium. As a result of its influence, he was at the age of seventeen converted to Christianity and baptized into the Lutheran Church at Erlangen on November 6, 1819.[2] To this faith he clung with earnest devotion and persistence until his death
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Frederick William IV Of Prussia
Crypt
Crypt
of the Friedenskirche, Sanssouci Park, Potsdam[1] (Heart in the Mausoleum at Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin)[2]Spouse Elisabeth Ludovika of BavariaHouse House of HohenzollernFather Frederick William III of PrussiaMother Louise of Mecklenburg-StrelitzReligion Lutheranism
Lutheranism
(Prussian United)SignaturePrussian RoyaltyHouse of HohenzollernFrederick William IIIChildren Frederick William IV William I Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of Russia Princess Frederica Prince Charles of Prussia Alexandrine, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg Prince Ferdinand Princess Louise Prince Albert of PrussiaFrederick William IVv t eFrederick William IV (German: Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 1795[3] – 2 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia
Prussia
from 1840 to 1861
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Ernst Ludwig Von Gerlach
Ernst Ludwig von Gerlach
Ernst Ludwig von Gerlach
(7 March 1795 – 18 February 1877) was a conservative Prussian judge, politician, and editor. He was the son of Carl Friedrich Leopold von Gerlach and the brother of Ludwig Friedrich Leopold von Gerlach. Gerlach was born in Berlin, Brandenburg. From 1813–15, he fought in the War of the Sixth Coalition, and later pursued a judicial career. Gerlach became Judge
Judge
of the High Court, or Oberlandesgerichtsrat, in the city of Naumburg
Naumburg
in 1823. In 1829, he became Agricultural and Municipal Court Director in Halle. By 1835, Gerlach was the Vice President of the Higher Regional Court in Frankfurt (Oder). During the revolutions of 1848, Gerlach was involved in the founding of the Neue Preussische Zeitung, a conservative newspaper
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Pope Pius IX
Pope
Pope
Pius IX
Pius IX
(Italian: Pio; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti,[a] was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving for over 31 years. During his pontificate, Pius IX
Pius IX
convened the First Vatican Council
First Vatican Council
(1869–70), which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short owing to the loss of the Papal States. Europe, including the Italian peninsula, was in the midst of considerable political ferment when the bishop of Spoleto, Cardinal Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was elected pope. He took the name Pius, after his generous patron and the long-suffering prisoner of Napoleon, Pius VII
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Tradition
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.[1][2] Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyers' wigs or military officers' spurs), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin
Latin
tradere literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines also use the word in a variety of ways. One way tradition is used more simply, often in academic work but elsewhere also, is to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed
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Heinrich Leo
Heinrich Leo
Heinrich Leo
(17 March 1799 – 24 April 1878) was a Prussian historian born in Rudolstadt, his father being chaplain to the garrison there. His family was not of Italian origin, as he himself was inclined to believe on the strength of family tradition, but established in Lower Saxony as early as the 10th century. The taste for historical study was early instilled into him by the eminent philologist Karl Wilhelm Göttling (1793 - 1869), who in 1816 became a master at the Rudolstadt gymnasium. From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and Göttingen, devoting himself to history, philology and theology
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Free Market
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority. Proponents of the concept of free market contrast it with a regulated market, in which a government intervenes in supply and demand through various methods such as tariffs used to restrict trade and protect the economy. In an idealized free market economy, prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy. In scholarly debates, the concept of a free market is contrasted with the concept of a coordinated market in fields of study such as political economy, new institutional economics, economic sociology, and political science
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