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Conservation Status
The CONSERVATION STATUS of a group of organisms (for instance, a species ) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use
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Extinction
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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Extinct In The Wild
An EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
as only known by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss
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IUCN Red List Of Extinct Species
On 29 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 842 (746 animals , 96 plants ) extinct species , subspecies and varieties , stocks and sub-populations
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IUCN Red List Extinct In The Wild Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Threatened Species
THREATENED SPECIES are any species (including animals , plants , fungi , etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future. Species that are threatened are sometimes characterised by the population dynamics measure of _critical depensation _, a mathematical measure of biomass related to population growth rate . This quantitative metric is one method of evaluating the degree of endangerment
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Critically Endangered
A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. It's the highest risk category assigned by the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
for wild species . As of 2014, there are 2464 animal and 2104 plant species with this assessment, compared with 1998 levels of 854 and 909, respectively. As the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
does not consider a species extinct until extensive, targeted surveys have been conducted, species which are possibly extinct are still listed as critically endangered. IUCN maintains a list of "possibly extinct" _CR(PE)_ and "possibly extinct in the wild" _CR(PEW)_ species, modelled on categories used by BirdLife International to categorize these taxa
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Endangered Species
An ENDANGERED SPECIES is a species which has been categorized as likely to become extinct . Endangered (EN), as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List , is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered (CR). In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3079 animal and 2655 plant species as endangered (EN) worldwide. The figures for 1998 were, respectively, 1102 and 1197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species : for example, forbidding hunting , restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers, trends and species' conservation status can be found in the lists of organisms by population
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Vulnerable Species
A VULNERABLE species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances threatening its survival and reproduction improve. Vulnerability is mainly caused by habitat loss or destruction of the species home. Vulnerable habitat or species are monitored and can become increasingly threatened. Some species listed as "vulnerable" may be common in captivity , an example being the military macaw . There are currently 5196 animals and 6789 plants classified as vulnerable, compared with 1998 levels of 2815 and 3222, respectively. Practices such as Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources have been enforced in efforts to conserve vulnerable breeds of livestock specifically
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Lists Of IUCN Red List Critically Endangered Species
An ENDANGERED SPECIES is a species which has been categorized as likely to become extinct . Endangered (EN), as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List , is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered (CR). In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3079 animal and 2655 plant species as endangered (EN) worldwide. The figures for 1998 were, respectively, 1102 and 1197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species : for example, forbidding hunting , restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers, trends and species' conservation status can be found in the lists of organisms by population
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Lists Of IUCN Red List Endangered Species
On 29 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 5220 (2754 Animalia , 1 Fungi , 2464 Plantae , 1 Protista ) endangered species , subspecies and varieties , stocks and sub-populations
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Lists Of IUCN Red List Vulnerable Species
On 30 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 9694 (4618 Animalia , 5075 Plantae , 1 Protista ) Vulnerable species , subspecies and varieties , stocks and sub-populations
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Lower Risk
An animal with the conservation status of LOWER RISK is one with populations levels high enough to ensure its survival. Animals with this status do not qualify as being threatened or extinct, however, natural disasters or certain human activities would cause them to change to either of these classifications. This classification is sub-divided into three types: * Conservation dependent - where cessation of current conservation measures could result in it being classified at a higher risk level. * Near threatened - close to becoming vulnerable but not meeting the criteria. * Least concern - where neither of the two above apply.SEE ALSO * Biodiversity action plan * Endangered species REFERENCES * "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". Archived from the original on 2009-05-17. Retrieved 2015-05-22. _ This ecology -related article is a stub
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Near-threatened Species
A NEAR-THREATENED SPECIES is a species which has been categorized as "NEAR THREATENED" (NT) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as that may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. The IUCN notes the importance of re-evaluating near-threatened taxa at appropriate intervals. The rationale used for near-threatened taxa usually includes the criteria of vulnerable which are plausible or nearly met, such as reduction in numbers or range. Near-threatened species evaluated from 2001 onwards may also be ones which are dependent on conservation efforts to prevent their becoming threatened, whereas prior to this conservation-dependent species were given a separate category ("Conservation Dependent"). Additionally, the 402 conservation-dependent taxa may also be considered near-threatened
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Conservation-dependent Species
A CONSERVATION-DEPENDENT SPECIES is a species which has been categorised as "CONSERVATION DEPENDENT" ("LR/cd") by the International Union for Conservation of Nature , i.e. as dependent on conservation efforts to prevent it from becoming threatened with extinction. Such species must be the focus of a continuing species-specific and/or habitat-specific conservation programme, the cessation of which would result in the species qualifying for one of the threatened categories within a period of five years
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Least-concern Species
A LEAST CONCERN (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as evaluated but not qualified for any other category. As such they do not qualify as threatened , near threatened , or (before 2001) conservation dependent . Species cannot be assigned the Least Concern category unless they have had their population status evaluated. That is, adequate information is needed to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution or population status. Since 2001 the category has had the abbreviation "LC", following the IUCN 2001 Categories -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> * ^ "2001 Categories ">(PDF). _The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species_. Retrieved 2015-05-22. * ^ " Philautus sp. nov. \'Kalpatta\'". _The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species_. Retrieved 2006-12-19
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