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Congress Of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Wiener Kongress) was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna
Vienna
from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of SpainReino de España  (Spanish) 4 other official names[a][b] Catalan:Regne d'EspanyaBasque:Espainiako ErresumaGalician:Reino de EspañaOccitan:Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms Motto: "Plus ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March" Show globeShow map of EuropeLocation of .mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal Spain (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityMadrid40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national languageSpanish[c]Ethnic groups (2019)[4]89.67% Spaniards10.33% othersReligion (2019)[5]67.0% Catholicism27.2% No religion3.1% Other religionsDemonym(s)S
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Revolution
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in political power and political organization, which occurs relatively quickly when the population revolt against their oppression (political, social, economic) by the incumbent government.[1] In book V of the Politics, the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 BC) described two types of political revolution:Complete change from one constitution to another Modification of an existing constitution.[2]Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology. Their results include major changes in culture, economy, and socio-political institutions, usually in response to overwhelming autocracy or plutocracy. Scholarly debates about what does and does not constitute a revolution center on several issues
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Treaty Of Paris (1814)
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an (international) agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms
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Scandinavia
Scandinavia[a] (/ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a region in Northern Europe, characterized by common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.[2] The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, but in English usage, it also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
or to the broader region which includes Finland
Finland
and Iceland.[1] This broader region is usually known locally as the Nordic countries.[3] The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of SwedenKonungariket Sverige  (Swedish) Flag Coat of arms Motto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a]"For Sweden – With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b]Thou ancient, thou free Royal anthem: KungssångenSong of the KingShow globeShow map of EuropeLocation of Sweden (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]Capitaland largest cityStockholm59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350°N 18.067°E / 59.350; 18.067Official languagesSwedish[c] Official minority languages:[c]FinnishMeänkieliSamiRomaniYiddishEthnic groups No official statistics[d]Demonym(s)SwedishSwedeGovernmentUnitary parliamentaryconstitutional monarchy• Monarch Carl XVI Gustaf• 
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German Language
German (Deutsch, [dɔʏtʃ] (listen)) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
in Italy, the German-speaking Community
German-speaking Community
of Belgium
Belgium
and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship
Opole Voivodeship
in Poland. The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group
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Status Quo
Status quo is a Latin
Latin
phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.[1] In the sociological sense, it generally applies to maintain or change existing social structure and values.[2] With regard to policy debate, the status quo refers to how conditions are at the time and how the affirmative team can solve these conditions for example "The countries are now trying to maintain a status quo with regards to their nuclear arsenal which will help them if the situation gets any worse."[3] It is the nominal form of the prepositional Latin
Latin
phrase "in statu quo" – literally "in the state in which", which itself is a shortening of the original phrase in statu quo res erant ante bellum, meaning "in the state in which things were before the war". To maintain the status quo is to keep the things the way they presently are
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World War I
Allied victory Central Powers
Central Powers
victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of all continental empires in Europe
Europe
(including Germany, Ru
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Republicanism
Republicanism
Republicanism
is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.[citation needed] Many countries are "republics" in the sense that they are not monarchies. This article covers only the ideology of republicanism. The word "republic" derives from the Latin noun-phrase res publica, which referred to the system of government that emerged in the 6th century BC following the semi-legendary[1] expulsion of the kings from Rome by Lucius Junius Brutus
Lucius Junius Brutus
and Collatinus.[2] This form of government in the Roman state collapsed in the latter part of the 1st century BCE, giving way to what was a monarchy in form, if not in name. Republics re-occurred subsequently, with, for example, Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence
Florence
or early modern Britain
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Conservatism
Conservatism
Conservatism
is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, human imperfection, organic society, hierarchy and authority and property rights.[1] Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as monarchy, religion, parliamentary government and property rights with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity[2] while the more extreme elements called reactionaries oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were".[3][4] The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand[5] during the period of Bourbon restoration
Bourbon restoration
that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution
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Jean De Noailles
Jean-Louis-Paul-François de Noailles, 5th Duke of Noailles
Duke of Noailles
(26 October 1739, Paris – 20 October 1824) was a French nobleman and scientist. Biography[edit] The son of Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, he was in the army for a period. However, his eminence as a chemist gained him the election as a member of the Académie des sciences
Académie des sciences
in 1777. He was a Knight of Golden Fleece. He became duc d'Ayen in 1766 on his grandfather's death, and duc de Noailles on his father's in 1793
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French Revolutionary Wars
 Holy Roman Empire Austria[note 1]  Prussia
Prussia
(1792–95)[note 2]   Great Britain
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Klemens Wenzel, Prince Von Metternich
Klemens is a male given name derived from Clemens of the following people: Klemens Zamoyski
Klemens Zamoyski
(1747–1767), Polish nobleman Klemens Janicki (1516–1543) Jan Klemens Branicki
Jan Klemens Branicki
(1689–1771) Klemens von Ketteler
Klemens von Ketteler
(1853–1900) Klemens Wenzel von Metternich
Klemens Wenzel von Metternich
(1773–1859) Józef Klemens Czartoryski
Józef Klemens Czartoryski
(1740–1810), Polish noblemanThis page or section lists people that share the same given name
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André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin
André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin
André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin
(1 February 1783 – 8 November 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly. Dupin was born at Varzy, in the Nièvre
Nièvre
département, in France. He was educated by his father, who was a lawyer of eminence, and at an early age he became principal clerk of an attorney at Paris. On the establishment of the Académie de Legislation he entered it as pupil from Nièvre. In 1800 he was made advocate, and in 1802, when the schools of law were opened, he received successively the degrees of licentiate and doctor from the new faculty. He was in 1810 an unsuccessful candidate for the chair of law at Paris, and in 1811 he also failed to obtain the office of advocate-general at the Court of Cassation
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