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Confucius
Confucius
Confucius
(/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ kən-FEW-shəs;[1] 551 BC – 479 BC)[2][3] was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty
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Chu-Han Contention
Han victoryRe-unification of China Fall of Western Chu Founding of the Han dynastyBelligerentsHan Henan Western Chu Kingdom of Zhao Three QinsCommanders and leadersLiu Bang Han Xin Ying Bu Peng Yue Xiang Yu † Long Ju † Ji Bu Zhongli MeiThe Chu–Han Contention
Chu–Han Contention
(206–202 BC) was an interregnum between the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
and the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in Chinese history. Following the collapse of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
in 206 BC, Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
split the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms. Two major contending powers emerged, Western Chu and Han, which engaged in a struggle for supremacy over China. Western Chu was led by Xiang Yu, while the Han leader was Liu Bang
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
(GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
[p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Wu Chinese
Wu (Shanghainese: [ɦu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect: [ɦəu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Wuxi
Wuxi
dialect: [ŋ˨˨˧ nʲy˨˨]) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province and the southern half of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, as well as bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai, Suzhou, Ningbo, Wuxi, Wenzhou/Oujiang, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua
Jinhua
and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek, Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and Cai Yuanpei, occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics
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Suzhounese
The Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect (simplified Chinese: 苏州话; traditional Chinese: 蘇州話; pinyin: Sūzhōu huà; Suzhounese: Sou-tsøʏ ghé-ghô 蘇州閒話), also known as Suzhounese, is the variety of Chinese traditionally spoken in the city of Suzhou
Suzhou
in Jiangsu Province, China. Suzhounese is a variety of Wu Chinese, and was traditionally considered the Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
prestige dialect. Considered one of the most flowing and elegant languages of China,[citation needed] it is rich in vowels and conservative in having many initials.Contents1 Distribution 2 History 3 Plural pronouns 4 Varieties 5 Phonology5.1 Initials 5.2 Finals 5.3 Tones6 Romanization 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDistribution[edit] Suzhounese (or archaically Soochownese) is spoken within the city itself and the surrounding area, including migrants living in nearby Shanghai
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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Robert Cummings Neville
Robert Cummings Neville (born May 1, 1939 in St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.) is an American systematic philosopher and theologian, author of numerous books and papers, and ex-Dean of the Boston University
Boston University
School of Theology. J. Harley Chapman and Nancy Frankenberry, editors of a festchrift—a collection of critical essays written in Neville's honor—entitled Interpreting Neville, consider him to be "one of the most significant philosophers and theologians of our time".[1] Neville was Dean of Humanities and Fine Arts at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and has taught at Yale, Fordham, and the State University of New York Purchase
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Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
(/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/;[a] from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-oē)[b] or Minnan Proper[citation needed] (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines
Philippines
and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese. Hokkien originated in southern Fujian, the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Hainanese
Hainanese
and Leizhou dialect
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Taiwanese Romanization System
The Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
(Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
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Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
(formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionaries recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang'an
Chang'an
of the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, based on the more recently recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology (1st millennium BC). The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice
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Old Chinese
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.[a] The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects, the Mencius, and the Zuozhuan. These works served as models for Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese. Old Chinese
Old Chinese
was written with an early form of Chinese characters, with each character representing a monosyllabic word. Although the script is not alphabetic, most characters were created by adapting a character for a similar-sounding word
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