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Confluence
In geography, a confluence (also: conflux) occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel.[1] A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main stem); or where two streams meet to become the source of a river of a new name (such as the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers at Pittsburgh, forming the Ohio); or where two separated channels of a river (forming a river island) rejoin at the downstream end.Contents1 Scientific study of confluences1.1 Confluence
Confluence
Flow Zones (River)2 Confluences and humankind 3 Notable confluences3.1 Africa 3.2 Asia 3.3 Australia 3.4 Europe 3.5 North America 3.6 South America4 Confluences not of two rivers 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksScientific study of confluences[edit] Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences
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Zambia
Coordinates: 15°S 30°E / 15°S 30°E / -15; 30Republic of ZambiaFlagCoat of armsMotto:  "One Zambia, One Nation"Anthem: National Anthem of ZambiaCapital and largest city Lusaka 15°25′S 28°17′E / 15.417°S 28.283°E / -15.417; 28.283Official languages EnglishRecognised regional languages> 0.5%33.5% Bemba 14.8% Nyanja 11.4% Tonga 5.5% Lozi 4.5% Chewa 3.0% Nsenga 2.6% Tumbuka 1.9% Lunda 1.9% Kaonde 1.8% Lala 1.8% Lamba 1.7% English 1.5% Luvale 1.3% Mambwe 1.2% Lenje 1.2% Namwanga 1.0% Bisa 0.9% Ushi 0.7% Ila 0.7% Mbunda 0.7% Ngoni 0.7% Senga 0.6% Lungu 0.5% Toka-Leya 4.7% OthersEthnic groups (2010[1])> 0.5%21.0% Bemba 13.6% Tonga 7.4% Chewa 5.7% Lozi 5.3% Nsenga 4.4% Tumbuka 4.0% Ngoni 3.1% Lala 2.9% Kaonde 2.8% Namwanga 2.6% Lunda (Northern) 2.5% Mambwe 2.2% Luvale 2.1% Lamba 1.9% Ushi 1.6% Bisa 1.6% Lenje 1.2% Mbunda 0.9% Lunda (Luapula) 0.9
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Tripoint
A tripoint, trijunction,[1] triple point or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 international tripoints.[2] Nearly half are situated in rivers, lakes or seas. When on dry land, the exact tripoints are usually indicated by markers or pillars, and occasionally by larger monuments. Usually, the more neighbours a country has, the more international tripoints that country has. China
China
with 16 tripoints and Russia
Russia
with 11 to 14 lead the list of states by number of tripoints. Within Europe, landlocked Austria
Austria
has nine tripoints, among them two with Switzerland and Liechtenstein
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United States Geological Survey
The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people[2] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia
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Acid Mine Drainage
Acid
Acid
mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines. Acid
Acid
rock drainage occurs naturally within some environments as part of the rock weathering process but is exacerbated by large-scale earth disturbances characteristic of mining and other large construction activities, usually within rocks containing an abundance of sulfide minerals. Areas where the earth has been disturbed (e.g. construction sites, subdivisions, and transportation corridors) may create acid rock drainage. In many localities, the liquid that drains from coal stocks, coal handling facilities, coal washeries, and coal waste tips can be highly acidic, and in such cases it is treated as acid rock drainage. This liquid often contains toxic metals, such as copper or iron
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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Sediment Transport
Sediment
Sediment
transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained. Sediment
Sediment
transport occurs in natural systems where the particles are clastic rocks (sand, gravel, boulders, etc.), mud, or clay; the fluid is air, water, or ice; and the force of gravity acts to move the particles along the sloping surface on which they are resting. Sediment
Sediment
transport due to fluid motion occurs in rivers, oceans, lakes, seas, and other bodies of water due to currents and tides. Transport is also caused by glaciers as they flow, and on terrestrial surfaces under the influence of wind
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Algae
Algae
Algae
(/ˈældʒi, ˈælɡi/; singular alga /ˈælɡə/) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae genera, such as Chlorella
Chlorella
and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, which are found in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra
Spirogyra
and the stoneworts. No definition of algae is generally accepted
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Hinduism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing
([ʈʂʰʊ̌ŋ.tɕʰîŋ] ( listen)), formerly romanized as Chungking,[a] is a major city in southwest China. Administratively, it is one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Tianjin), and the only such municipality in China
China
located far away from the coast.[7] The municipality was created on 14 March 1997 to help the Three Gorges Dam migration, succeeding the sub-provincial city administration that was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province.[8] Chongqing's population as of 2015[update] is just over 30 million with an urban population of 18.38 million
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Slav
Slavs
Slavs
are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia)
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Iron Age
Iron
Iron
Age metallurgy Ancient iron production↓ Ancient historyMediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, ChinaHistoriographyGreek, Roman, Chinese, MedievalThe Iron
Iron
Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age
Stone Age
(Neolithic) and the Bronze
Bronze
Age. It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe
Europe
and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World
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Deutsches Eck
Deutsches Eck (German: [ˈdɔʏtʃəs ˈʔɛk], "German Corner") is the name of a headland in Koblenz, Germany, where the Mosel river joins the Rhine. Named after a local commandry of the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden), it became known for a monumental equestrian statue of William I, first German Emperor, erected in 1897 in appreciation of his merits in the unification of Germany. One of many Emperor William monuments raised in the Prussian Rhine Province, it was destroyed in World War II and only the plinth was preserved as a memorial. Following German reunification, a replica of the statue was erected on the pedestal after controversial discussions in 1993. It is today a Koblenz landmark and a popular tourist destination.Contents1 History1.1 Imperial iconography 1.2 Demolition 1.3 Reinstallation2 Image gallery 3 External linksHistory[edit]Deutsches Eck with St
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Religion
There is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.[1][2] It may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophesies, ethics, or organizations, that relate humanity to the supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine,[3] sacred things,[4] faith,[5] a supernatural being or supernatural beings[6] or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life".[7] Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a
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Floodplain
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.[1] The soils usually consist of levees, silts, and sands deposited during floods. Levees are the heaviest materials (usually pebble-size) and they are deposited first; silts and sands are finer materials.Contents1 Formation 2 Ecology 3 Interaction with society 4 See also 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 Bibliography6 External linksFormation[edit] Floodplains are made by a meander eroding sideways as it travels downstream. When a river breaks its banks, it leaves behind layers of alluvium (silt). These gradually build up to create the floor of the plain. Floodplains generally contain unconsolidated sediments, often extending below the bed of the stream
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