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Conducting
CONDUCTING is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert . It has been defined as "the art of directing the simultaneous performance of several players or singers by the use of gesture." The primary duties of the CONDUCTOR are to interpret the score created by a composer in a manner which is reflective of the specific indications within that score, set the tempo , ensure correct entries by various members of the ensemble, and to "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. To convey their ideas and interpretation, conductors communicate with their musicians primarily through hand gestures, typically though not invariably with the aid of a baton , and may use other gestures or signals, such as eye contact with relevant performers. A conductor's directions will almost invariably be supplemented or reinforced by verbal instructions or suggestions to their musicians in rehearsal prior to a performance
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Christian
A CHRISTIAN (/ˈkrɪʃtʃən/ ( listen ), /ˈkrɪstiən/ ) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity
Christianity
, an Abrahamic , monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ . "Christian" derives from the Koine Greek
Koine Greek
word Christ ós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
term mashiach ( Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
: מָשִׁיחַ). While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity
Christianity
which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus
Jesus
has a unique significance
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Rhythm
RHYTHM (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry " (Liddell and Scott 1996 )) generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions" (Anon. 1971 , 2537). This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to several seconds (as with the riff in a rock music song ); to several minutes or hours, or, at the most extreme, even over many years. In the performance arts , rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale; of musical sounds and silences that occur over time, of the steps of a dance , or the meter of spoken language and poetry . In some performing arts, such as hip hop music , the rhythmic delivery of the lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style
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Melody
A MELODY ("singing, chanting"), also TUNE, VOICE, or LINE, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm , while more figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements such as tonal color . It may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment . A line or part need not be a foreground melody. Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs , and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms. Melodies may also be described by their melodic motion or the pitches or the intervals between pitches (predominantly conjunct or disjunct or with further restrictions), pitch range, tension and release, continuity and coherence, cadence , and shape. The true goal of music—its proper enterprise—is melody
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Big Band
A BIG BAND is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz or jazz-influenced popular music and which was popular during the Swing Era from the mid-1930s until the late 1940s. A big band typically consists of approximately 12 to 25 musicians and contains saxophones , trumpets , trombones , and a rhythm section . The terms JAZZ BAND, JAZZ ENSEMBLE, STAGE BAND, JAZZ ORCHESTRA, and DANCE BAND are also used to refer to this type of ensemble. This does not, however, mean that each one of these names is technically correct for naming a "big band" specifically. In contrast to smaller jazz combos, in which most of the music is improvised , or created spontaneously, music played by big bands is highly "arranged " in advance and written down as sheet music . The written arrangements are traditionally called "charts"
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Synthesizer
A SYNTHESIZER (often abbreviated as SYNTH, also spelled SYNTHESISER) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones . Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano , Hammond organ
Hammond organ
, flute , vocals ; natural sounds like ocean waves, etc.; or generate new electronic timbres . They are often played with a musical keyboard , but they can be controlled via a variety of other input devices, including music sequencers , instrument controllers , fingerboards , guitar synthesizers , wind controllers , and electronic drums . Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called sound modules , and are controlled via USB
USB
, MIDI
MIDI
or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI
MIDI
keyboard or other controller
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Musical Theatre
MUSICAL THEATRE is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue , acting, and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos , love, anger – are communicated through the words, music, movement and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue, movement and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, simply, MUSICALS. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan
in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America
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Jean-Baptiste Lully
JEAN-BAPTISTE LULLY (French: ; born GIOVANNI BATTISTA LULLI ; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer , instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
. He is considered a master of the French baroque style. Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. He became a French subject in 1661. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Music, style and influence * 3 Lully\'s works * 3.1 Sacred music * 3.2 Ballets de cour * 3.3 Music for the theater (intermèdes) * 3.4 Operas (tragedies in music) * 4 Depictions in fiction * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYLully was born on November 28, 1632 in Florence
Florence
, Grand Duchy of Tuscany , to a family of millers
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Te Deum
The TE DEUM (also known as AMBROSIAN HYMN or A SONG OF THE CHURCH) is an early Christian hymn of praise. The title is taken from its opening Latin
Latin
words, Te Deum
Te Deum
laudamus, rendered as "Thee, O God, we praise". The term can also refer to a short religious service, held to bless an event or give thanks, which is based upon the hymn. The hymn remains in regular use in the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
, Anglican Church and Methodist Church (mostly before the Homily) in the Office of Readings found in the Liturgy of the Hours
Liturgy of the Hours
, and in thanksgiving to God for a special blessing such as the election of a pope, the consecration of a bishop, the canonization of a saint, a religious profession , the publication of a treaty of peace, a royal coronation, etc
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Basso Continuo
FIGURED BASS, or THOROUGHBASS, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals ) indicate intervals , chords , and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano , harpsichord , organ , lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below. Figured bass
Figured bass
is closely associated with BASSO CONTINUO , a historically improvised accompaniment used in almost all genres of music in the Baroque period of Classical music
Classical music
(c.1600–1750), though rarely in modern music
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Giuseppe Verdi
GIUSEPPE FORTUNINO FRANCESCO VERDI (Italian: ; 9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Bellini , Donizetti , and Rossini , whose works significantly influenced him, becoming one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history. In his early operas, Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy. He also participated briefly as an elected politician. The chorus "Va, pensiero " from his early opera Nabucco (1842), and similar choruses in later operas, were much in the spirit of the unification movement, and the composer himself became esteemed as a representative of these ideals
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Lute
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(early lutes) Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(modern lutes) RELATED INSTRUMENTS List * * Angélique *
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Bow (music)
In music , a BOW is a tensioned stick with hair affixed to it which is moved across some part of a musical instrument causing vibration , which the instrument emits as sound . The vast majority of bows are used with string instruments , such as the violin , although some bows are used with musical saws and other bowed idiophones . CONTENTS * 1 Materials and manufacture * 2 Types of bow * 3 Bowing * 4 History * 4.1 Origin * 4.2 The modern Western bow * 4.3 Historical bows * 4.4 Stradivarius bows * 4.5 Other types of bow * 5 Maintenance * 6 Nomenclature * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURE Frog of a modern violin bow (K. Gerhard Penzel) Tip of a modern violin bow (K. Gerhard Penzel) A bow consists of a specially shaped stick with other material forming a ribbon stretched between its ends, which is used to stroke the string and create sound
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Louis XIV Of France
LOUIS XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as LOUIS THE GREAT (Louis le Grand) or the SUN KING (le Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history . In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France
France
was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin . An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings , which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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Gangrene
GANGRENE is a type of necrosis caused by a critically insufficient blood supply. This potentially life-threatening condition may occur after an injury or infection, or in people suffering from any chronic health problem affecting blood circulation . The primary cause of gangrene is reduced blood supply to the affected tissues, which results in cell death. Diabetes
Diabetes
and long-term smoking increase the risk of gangrene. Gangrene
Gangrene
is not a communicable disease; it does not spread from person to person, though the infection associated to some forms can. The types of gangrene differ in symptoms, and include dry gangrene , wet gangrene , gas gangrene , internal gangrene , and necrotizing fasciitis . Surgical removal of gangrenous tissue and antibiotics are the mainstays of treatment for gangrene. After the gangrene is treated, the underlying cause is addressed
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