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Conducting
CONDUCTING is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert . The primary duties of the CONDUCTOR are to interpret the score created by a composer in a manner which is reflective of those specific indications within that score, set the tempo , ensure correct entries by various members of the ensemble, and to "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. To convey their ideas and interpretation, a conductor communicates with their musicians primarily through hand gestures, typically though not invariably with the aid of a baton , and may use other gestures or signals, such as eye contact with relevant performers. A conductor's directions will almost invariably be supplemented or reinforced by verbal instructions or suggestions to their musicians in rehearsal prior to a performance. The conductor typically stands on a raised podium with a large music stand for the full score , which contains the musical notation for all the instruments or voices. Since the mid-19th century, most conductors have not played an instrument when conducting, although in earlier periods of classical music history, leading an ensemble while playing an instrument was common
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Conduct (other)
CONDUCT may refer to: * Behavior * a personal behavior , a way of acting and showing one's behaviour * using hand gestures to direct * Conduct disorder * Action (philosophy) , in relation to moral or ethical precepts * Conducting
Conducting
a musical ensemble * a Conduct was a Chaplain or a sub-Chaplain of Eton , or of certain colleges of Cambridge University, in particular King\'s College SEE ALSO * Misconduct * Conductor (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CONDUCT. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Conduct additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Conductor (other)
CONDUCTOR or CONDUCTION may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Physics * 2 Mathematics * 3 Music * 4 Other PHYSICS * Electrical conductor , an object, substance or material allowing the flow of an electric charge * Electrical resistivity and conductivity , the movement of charged particles through an electrical conductor * Fast ion conductor , a solid-state electrical conductor which conducts due to the movement of ions * Mixed conductor , a solid state electrical conductor which conducts due to the movement of ions and electrons * Conduction (heat) , the transfer of thermal energy through matter *
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Apo Hsu
APO HSU (APO CHING-HSIN HSU) (Chinese : 許瀞心) is a conductor born in Taiwan and resident of both Taiwan and the United States . Hsu served as music director of the National Taiwan Normal University Symphony Orchestra and the Springfield Symphony Orchestra in Springfield , Missouri . Her past appointments include serving as artistic director of The Women\'s Philharmonic in San Francisco , California , and conductor of the Oregon Mozart Players in Eugene , Oregon . She has been a mentor for many young conductors on both sides of the world through her work at NTNU and at The Conductor’s Institute at Bard College in New York . Her performances have been featured in national broadcasts in the United States (on National Public Radio ), Taiwan (on International Community Radio Taipei ), and Korea (on Korean Broadcasting System ). CONTENTS * 1 Concerts * 2 Programs and Recordings * 3 Teaching * 4 Education * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links CONCERTSApo Hsu's international career encompasses a wide array of guest appearances, residencies, and tour performances
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Baton (conducting)
A BATON is a stick that is used by conductors primarily to enlarge and enhance the manual and bodily movements associated with directing an ensemble of musicians. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Usage * 3 History * 3.1 Ancient history * 3.2 16th–18th centuries * 3.3 19th century * 3.4 Jazz Batons * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONModern batons are generally made of a lightweight wood, fiberglass or carbon fiber which is tapered to a comfortable grip called a "bulb" that is usually made of cork, oak, walnut, rosewood, or occasionally aluminum and that may be tailored to a conductor's needs. Professional conductors often have personal specifications for a baton based on their own physical demands and the nature of the performance: Sir Henry Wood and Herbert von Karajan are some examples. Historic examples of their construction include one given to the French composer Louis-Antoine Jullien in the mid 1850s prior to his first visit to the United States: it is described as "a gorgeous baton made of maplewood, richly mounted in gold and set with costly diamonds." Batons used by Arturo Toscanini , on display at a Smithsonian museum. Batons have normally varied in length from about 10 to 24 inches (250 to 610 mm) though a range of between 12 and 26 inches (300 and 660 mm) is more commonly used; Henry Wood once requested the use of a 24-inch baton
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National Taiwan Normal University
NATIONAL TAIWAN NORMAL UNIVERSITY (NTNU; Chinese : 國立臺灣師範大學; pinyin : _Guólì Táiwān Shīfàn Dàxué_), or _Shīdà_ 師大, is an institution of higher education and normal school operating out of three campuses in Taipei , Taiwan . The university enrolls approximately 17,000 students each year. Approximately 1,500 students are international. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 University structure * 3 International programs * 4 Academic Departments * 4.1 College of Education * 4.2 College of Fine and Applied Arts * 4.3 College of International Studies and Education for Overseas Chinese * 4.4 College of Liberal Arts * 4.5 College of Music * 4.6 College of Management * 4.7 College of Science * 4.8 College of Social Science * 4.9 College of Sports and Recreation * 4.10 College of Technology * 5 List of NTNU People * 5.1 Professors * 5.2 Alumni * 5.3 Mandarin Training Center Alumni * 6 Nomenclature * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY NTNU Lecture Hall The National Taiwan Normal University opened its doors in the early 20th century during Japanese rule in Taiwan. Taiwan's Japanese governors established the school as TAIWAN PROVINCIAL COLLEGE. Soon after they gave it the name TAIHOKU COLLEGE (_Taihoku_ is "Taipei" in Japanese)
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Steven Sametz
STEVEN SAMETZ (born 1954, Westport, Connecticut ) is active as both conductor and composer. He has been hailed as "one of the most respected choral composers in America." Since 1979, he has been on the faculty of Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where he holds the Ronald J. Ulrich Chair in Music and is Director of Choral Activities and is founding director of the Lehigh University Choral Union. Since 1998, he has served as Artistic Director of the professional _a cappella _ ensemble, The Princeton Singers. He is also the founding director of the Lehigh University Summer Choral Composers’ Forum. In 2012, he was named Chair of the American Choral Directors Association Composition Advisory Committee. CONTENTS * 1 Early training, education and influences * 2 Composition * 3 Conducting * 4 Works * 4.1 Opera * 4.2 Orchestral * 4.3 Concerti * 4.4 Band * 4.5 Chorus and Orchestra * 4.6 Works for chorus and small instrumental ensembles or obbligato instruments * 4.7 Choir and Organ/ Piano * 4.8 _A cappella_ choir * 4.9 Solo Songs * 4.10 Chamber Music * 4.11 Arrangements * 5 References EARLY TRAINING, EDUCATION AND INFLUENCESSametz’s earliest piano works date from the age of six
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Lehigh University
LEHIGH UNIVERSITY is an American private research university located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania . It was established in 1865 by businessman Asa Packer and has grown to include studies in a wide variety of disciplines. Its undergraduate programs have been coeducational since the 1971–72 academic year. As of 2014, the university had 4,904 undergraduate students and 2,165 graduate students . Lehigh is considered one of the twenty-four Hidden Ivies in the Northeastern United States. Lehigh has four colleges : the P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business and Economics, and the College of Education. The College of Arts and Sciences is the largest college today, home to roughly 40% of the university's students. The university offers a variety of degrees, including Bachelor of Arts , Bachelor of Science , Master of Arts , Master of Science , Master of Business Administration , Master of Engineering , Master of Education , and Doctor of Philosophy . Lehigh has produced Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Fellows, members of the American Academy of Arts "> Asa Packer , a 19th-century U.S
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Music
MUSIC is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time . The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony ), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo , meter , and articulation ), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping ; there are solely instrumental pieces , solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment ) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (_mousike_; "art of the Muses "). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies , and so on), the criticism of music , the study of the history of music , and the aesthetic examination of music . Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres " and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to
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Orchestra
An ORCHESTRA (/ˈɔːrkᵻstrə/ or US : /ˈɔːrˌkɛstrə/ ; Italian: ) is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music , which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin , viola , cello and double bass , as well as brass , woodwinds , and percussion instruments , each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments . The term _orchestra_ derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα (_orchestra_), the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus . A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called a _symphony orchestra_ or _philharmonic orchestra_. The actual number of musicians employed in a given performance may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians, depending on the work being played and the size of the venue. The term _chamber orchestra_ (and sometimes _concert orchestra_) usually refers to smaller-sized ensembles of about fifty musicians or fewer
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Choir
A CHOIR (/ˈkwaɪ.ər/ ) (also known as a QUIRE, CHORALE or CHORUS) is a musical ensemble of singers. CHORAL MUSIC, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the Medieval era to the present, or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor , who leads the performances with arm and face gestures. A body of singers who perform together as a group is called a choir or chorus. The former term is very often applied to groups affiliated with a church (whether or not they actually occupy the choir ) and the second to groups that perform in theatres or concert halls, but this distinction is far from rigid. Choirs may sing without instrumental accompaniment, with the accompaniment of a piano or pipe organ , with a small ensemble (e.g., harpsichord , cello and double bass for a Baroque piece), or with a full orchestra of 70 to 100 musicians. The term "Choir" has the secondary definition of a subset of an ensemble; thus one speaks of the "woodwind choir" of an orchestra, or different "choirs" of voices or instruments in a polychoral composition. In typical 18th- to 21st-century oratorios and masses , chorus or choir is usually understood to imply more than one singer per part, in contrast to the quartet of soloists also featured in these works
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Concert
A CONCERT is a live music performance in front of an audience . A RECITAL is a concert by a soloist or small group which follows a program , such as featuring the works of a single composer (organ recital ). A RECITALIST is a musician who gives frequent recitals. The invention of the solo piano recital has been attributed to Franz Liszt . The performance may be by a single musician , sometimes then called a _recital_, or by a musical ensemble , such as an orchestra , choir , or band . Concerts are held in a wide variety and size of settings, from private houses and small nightclubs , dedicated concert halls , entertainment centres and parks to large multipurpose buildings, and even sports stadiums . Indoor concerts held in the largest venues are sometimes called _arena concerts_ or _amphitheatre concerts_. Informal names for a concert include _show_ and _gig _. Regardless of the venue, musicians usually perform on a stage . Concerts often require live event support with professional audio equipment. Before recorded music, concerts provided the main opportunity to hear musicians play. Concert of Joler Gan Band, Bangabandhu International Conference Centre (BICC) CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Theatrical * 1.2 Festivals * 1.3 Concert tour * 2 Revenue * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPESThe nature of a concert varies by musical genre , individual performers, and the venue
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Tempo
In musical terminology , TEMPO ("time" in Italian ; plural: _tempi_ ) is the speed or pace of a given piece . In classical music, tempo is usually indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece (often using conventional Italian terms). Tempo is usually measured in by beats per minute (BPM). In modern classical compositions a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music tempo will simply be stated in BPM. Tempo may be separated from articulation and metre , or these aspects may be indicated along with tempo, all contributing to the overall texture . While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a vital skill for a musical performer, tempo is changeable. Depending on the genre of a piece of music and the performers' interpretation, a piece may be played with slight tempo rubato or drastic accelerando . In ensembles, the tempo is often indicated by a conductor or by one of the instrumentalists, for instance the drummer
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Full Score
SHEET MUSIC is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms and/or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece. Like its analogs – printed books or pamphlets in English, Arabic or other languages – the medium of sheet music typically is paper (or, in earlier centuries, papyrus or parchment ), although the access to musical notation since the 1980s has included the presentation of musical notation on computer screens and the development of scorewriter computer programs that can notate a song or piece electronically, and, in some cases, "play back" the notated music using a synthesizer or virtual instruments . Use of the term "sheet" is intended to differentiate written or printed forms of music from sound recordings (on vinyl record , cassette , CD ), radio or TV broadcasts or recorded live performances, which may capture film or video footage of the performance as well as the audio component. In everyday use, "sheet music" (or simply "music") can refer to the print publication of commercial sheet music in conjunction with the release of a new film , TV show , record album , or other special or popular event which involves music. The first printed sheet music made with a printing press was made in 1473
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Musical Notation
MUSIC NOTATION or MUSICAL NOTATION is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols, including ancient symbols or modern musical symbols and including ancient symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets or made using a pen on papyrus , parchment or manuscript paper ; printed using a printing press (ca. 1400s), a computer printer (ca. 1980s) or other printing or modern copying technology . Types and methods of notation have varied between cultures and throughout history, and much information about ancient music notation is fragmentary. Even in the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; for example, for professional classical music performers, sheet music using staves and note heads is the most common way of notating music, but for professional country music session musicians , the Nashville Number System is the main method. Although many ancient cultures used symbols to represent melodies and rhythms , none of them were particularly comprehensive, and this has limited today's understanding of their music. The seeds of what would eventually become modern western notation were sown in medieval Europe, starting with the Catholic church
Catholic church
's goal for ecclesiastical uniformity
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Classical Music
CLASSICAL MUSIC is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music , including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more accurate term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period ), this article is about the broad span of time from roughly the 11th century to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period . The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows : * the early music period, which includes * the Medieval (500–1400) * the Renaissance (1400–1600) eras. * Baroque (1600–1750)* the common-practice period, which includes * Baroque (1600–1750) * Classical (1750–1820) * Romantic eras (1804–1910)* the 20th century (1901–2000) which includes * the modern (1890–1930) that overlaps from the late-19th century, * the impressionism (1875–1925) that also overlaps from the late-19th century * the neoclassicism (1920–1950), predominantly in the inter-war period * the experimental (1950–present) * the high modern (1950–1969) * contemporary (1945 or 1975–present) or postmodern (1930–present) eras.European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation , in use since about the 16th century
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