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Computing Platform
A COMPUTING PLATFORM is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system (OS), even a web browser or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed in it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture , an OS, or runtime libraries . A computing platform is the stage on which computer programs can run. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process , in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions; and as an assistance to the development process, in that they provide low-level functionality ready-made. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network . CONTENTS * 1 Components * 2 Operating system examples * 2.1 Desktop, laptop, server * 2.2 Mobile * 3 Software frameworks * 4 Hardware examples * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COMPONENTSPlatforms may also include: * Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems . Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS; this is referred to as running on "bare metal ". * A browser in the case of web-based software. The browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser
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Software
COMPUTER SOFTWARE, or simply SOFTWARE, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering , computer software is all information processed by computer systems , programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs , libraries and related non-executable data , such as online documentation or digital media . Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor —typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user. An instruction may also (indirectly) cause something to appear on a display of the computer system—a state change which should be visible to the user
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Computer Hardware
COMPUTER HARDWARE is the collection of physical components that constitute a computer system . Computer
Computer
hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as monitor , keyboard , computer data storage , graphic card , sound card , motherboard , and so on, all of which are tangible objects. By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction . A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system
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Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . All computer programs , excluding firmware , require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers . The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 83.3%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (11.2%), and the varieties of Linux
Linux
is in third position (1.55%)
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Web Browser
A WEB BROWSER (commonly referred to as a BROWSER) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web . An _information resource_ is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI/URL) that may be a web page , image, video or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems . The most popular web browsers are Chrome , Edge (preceded by Internet Explorer ), Safari , Opera and Firefox . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Business models * 3 Function * 4 Market share * 5 Features * 5.1 User interface * 5.2 Privacy and security * 5.3 Standards support * 5.4 Extensibility * 6 Components * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY Main article: History of the web browser The first web browser was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee . Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the Web's continued development, and is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation. His browser was called WorldWideWeb and later renamed Nexus
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Program Code
PROGRAM CODE can refer to: * Source code * Machine code
Machine code
This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title PROGRAM CODE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Program_code additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Abstraction (software Engineering)
In software engineering and computer science , ABSTRACTION is a technique for arranging complexity of computer systems. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. The programmer works with an idealized interface (usually well defined) and can add additional levels of functionality that would otherwise be too complex to handle. For an example, a programmer writing code that involves numerical operations may not be interested in the way numbers are represented in the underlying hardware (e.g. whether they're 16 bit or 32 bit integers ), and where those details have been suppressed it can be said that they were abstracted away, leaving simply numbers with which the programmer can work. In addition, a task of sending an email message across continents would be extremely complex if the programmer had to start with a piece of fiber optic cable and basic hardware components. By using layers of complexity that have been created to abstract away the physical cables and network layout, and presenting the programmer with a virtual data channel, this task is manageable. Abstraction can apply to control or to data: CONTROL ABSTRACTION is the abstraction of actions while DATA ABSTRACTION is that of data structures . * Control abstraction involves the use of subroutines and control flow abstractions * Data abstraction allows handling pieces of data in meaningful ways
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Computer Architecture
In computer engineering , COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems . Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design , and implementation . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Subcategories * 3 Roles * 3.1 Definition * 3.2 Instruction set architecture * 3.3 Computer organization * 3.4 Implementation * 4 Design goals * 4.1 Performance * 4.2 Power efficiency * 4.3 Shifts in market demand * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links HISTORYThe first documented computer architecture was in the correspondence between Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace , describing the analytical engine . When building the computer Z1 in 1936, Konrad Zuse described in two patent applications for his future projects that machine instructions could be stored in the same storage used for data, i.e. the stored-program concept
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Runtime Library
In computer programming , a RUNTIME LIBRARY is a set of low-level routines used by a compiler to invoke some of the behaviors of a runtime environment , by inserting calls to the runtime library into compiled executable binary. The runtime environment implements the execution model, built-in functions, and other fundamental behaviors of a programming language . During execution (run time ) of that computer program , execution of those calls to the runtime library cause communication between the executable binary and the runtime environment. A runtime library often includes built-in functions for memory management or exception handling . Therefore, a runtime library is always specific to the platform and compiler. The runtime library may implement a portion of the runtime environment's behavior, but if one reads the code of the calls available, they are typically only thin wrappers that simply package information, and send it to the runtime environment or operating system. However, sometimes the term runtime library is meant to include the code of the runtime environment itself, even though much of that code cannot be directly reached via a library call. For example, some language features that can be performed only (or are more efficient or accurate) at runtime are implemented in the runtime environment and may be invoked via the runtime library API, e.g
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Software Development Process
In software engineering , a SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS is the process of dividing software development work into distinct phases to improve design , product management , and project management . It is also known as a SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE. The methodology may include the pre-definition of specific deliverables and artifacts that are created and completed by a project team to develop or maintain an application. Most modern development processes can be vaguely described as agile . Other methodologies include waterfall , prototyping , iterative and incremental development , spiral development , rapid application development , and extreme programming . Some people consider a life-cycle "model" a more general term for a category of methodologies and a software development "process" a more specific term to refer to a specific process chosen by a specific organization. For example, there are many specific software development processes that fit the spiral life-cycle model
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Network (computing)
A COMPUTER NETWORK or DATA NETWORK is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other using a data link . The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media . Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers , phones , servers as well as networking hardware . Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload ) over other more general communications protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably . Computer
Computer
networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web , digital video , digital audio , shared use of application and storage servers , printers , and fax machines , and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others
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Embedded System
An EMBEDDED SYSTEM is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is _embedded_ as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors are manufactured as components of embedded systems. Examples of properties of typically embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit cost. This comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them significantly more difficult to program and to interact with. However, by building intelligence mechanisms on top of the hardware, taking advantage of possible existing sensors and the existence of a network of embedded units, one can both optimally manage available resources at the unit and network levels as well as provide augmented functions, well beyond those available. For example, intelligent techniques can be designed to manage power consumption of embedded systems. Modern embedded systems are often based on microcontrollers (i.e. CPU's with integrated memory or peripheral interfaces), but ordinary microprocessors (using external chips for memory and peripheral interface circuits) are also common, especially in more-complex systems
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Bare Metal (computing)
BARE MACHINE (or BARE METAL), in computer parlance, means a computer executing instructions directly on logic hardware without an intervening operating system . Modern operating systems evolved through various stages, from elementary to the present day complex, highly sensitive systems incorporating many services. After the development of programmable computers (which did not require physical changes to run different programs) but prior to the development of operating systems, sequential instructions were executed on the computer hardware directly using machine language without any system software layer. This approach is termed the "bare machine" precursor to modern operating systems. Today it is mostly applicable to embedded systems and firmware generally with time-critical latency requirements, while conventional programs are run by a runtime system overlaid on an operating system. CONTENTS * 1 Example * 2 Development * 3 Embedded systems * 4 See also * 5 References EXAMPLEThe PDP-11 machine allowed programmers to load a program, supplied in machine code , to RAM
RAM
. The resulting operation of the program could be monitored by lights, and output derived from mag tape, print devices, or storage. DEVELOPMENTThe bare machine approach paved the way for new ideas that pushed the process of OS evolution to its next stage
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Scripting Language
A SCRIPTING or SCRIPT LANGUAGE is a programming language that supports SCRIPTS: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator. Scripting languages are often interpreted (rather than compiled ). Primitives are usually the elementary tasks or API calls, and the language allows them to be combined into more complex programs. Environments that can be automated through scripting include software applications , web pages within a web browser , the shells of operating systems (OS), embedded systems , as well as numerous games. A scripting language can be viewed as a domain-specific language for a particular environment; in the case of scripting an application, this is also known as an EXTENSION LANGUAGE. Scripting languages are also sometimes referred to as very high-level programming languages , as they operate at a high level of abstraction, or as CONTROL LANGUAGES, particularly for job control languages on mainframes. The term "scripting language" is also used loosely to refer to dynamic high-level general-purpose languages , such as Perl , Tcl
Tcl
, and Python , with the term "script" often used for small programs (up to a few thousand lines of code) in such languages, or in domain-specific languages such as the text-processing languages sed and AWK
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Excel Macro
MICROSOFT EXCEL is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
for Windows , macOS , Android and iOS . It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables , and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications . It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office
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Microsoft Office
MICROSOFT OFFICE is an office suite of applications, servers, and services developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
. It was first announced by Bill Gates on 1 August 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications, the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word , Microsoft Excel , and Microsoft
Microsoft
PowerPoint . Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft
Microsoft
also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On 10 July 2012, Softpedia reported that Office is used by over a billion people worldwide. Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments. The original, and most widely used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows
Windows
and macOS operating systems . The most current desktop version is Office 2016 for Windows
Windows
and macOS, released on 22 September 2015 and 9 July 2015, respectively
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