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Composition (visual Arts)
In the visual arts, composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or 'ingredients' in a work of art, as distinct from the subject. It can also be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of art. The composition of a picture is different from its subject, what is depicted, whether a moment from a story, a person or a place. Many subjects, for example Saint George and the Dragon, are often portrayed in art, but using a great range of compositions even though the two figures are typically the only ones shown. The term composition means 'putting together' and can apply to any work of art from music to writing to photography that is arranged using conscious thought. In the visual arts, composition is often used interchangeably with various terms such as design, form, visual ordering, or formal structure, depending on the context
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The Art Of Painting (Vermeer)
The Art of Painting, also known as The Allegory of Painting, or Painter in his Studio, is a 17th-century oil on canvas painting by Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer. It is owned by the Austrian Republic and is on display in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. This illusionistic painting is one of Vermeer's most famous. In 1868 Thoré-Bürger, known today for his rediscovery of the work of painter Johannes Vermeer, regarded this painting as his most interesting. Svetlana Alpers describes it as unique and ambitious;[1] Walter Liedtke "as a virtuoso display of the artist's power of invention and execution, staged in an imaginary version of his studio ..."[2] According to Albert Blankert "No other painting so flawlessly integrates naturalistic technique, brightly illuminated space, and a complexly integrated composition."[3] Many art historians think that it is an allegory of painting, hence the alternative title of the painting
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Duccio
Duccio
Duccio
di Buoninsegna (Italian: [ˈduttʃo di ˌbwɔninˈseɲɲa]; c. 1255–1260 – c. 1318–1319) was an Italian painter active in Siena, Tuscany, in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. He was hired throughout his life to complete many important works in government and religious buildings around Italy. Duccio
Duccio
is credited with creating the painting styles of Trecento
Trecento
and the Sienese school, and also contributed significantly to the Sienese Gothic style.Contents1 Biography 2 Artistic career 3 Style 4 Followers of Duccio 5 Gallery 6 Known surviving works 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksBiography[edit] Although much is still unconfirmed about Duccio
Duccio
and his life, there is more documentation of him and his life than of other Italian painters of his time
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Framing (visual Arts)
In visual arts and particularly cinematography, framing is the presentation of visual elements in an image, especially the placement of the subject in relation to other objects. Framing can make an image more aesthetically pleasing and keep the viewer's focus on the framed object(s). It can also be used as a repoussoir, to direct attention back into the scene. It can add depth to an image, and can add interest to the picture when the frame is thematically related to the object being framed. Purpose[edit] The goal is often to focus the viewer’s attention upon the subject, but the ends and means are ultimately at the discretion of the artist. It is accomplished by manipulating the viewpoint of the image, rather than the object(s) within. Framing, especially in the photographic arts, is primarily concerned with the position and perspective of the viewer
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Lead Room
In photography, filmography and other visual arts, lead room, or sometimes nose room, is the space in front, and in the direction of, moving or stationary subjects.[1][2] Well-composed shots leave space in the direction the subject is facing or moving.[1] When the human eye scans a photograph for the first time it will expect to see a bit in front of the subject.[3] For example, moving objects such as cars require lead room.[4] If extra space is allowed in front of a moving car, the viewer can see that it has someplace to go; without this visual padding, the car's progress will seem impeded.[4]See also[edit]Photography portalHeadroom (photographic framing) Rule of thirdsReferences[edit]^ a b "Lead room". mapacourse.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-08-09.  ^ Peter May (2004). The Essential Digital Video Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Making Videos That Make Money
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White Space (visual Arts)
In page layout, illustration and sculpture, white space is often referred to as negative space. It is the portion of a page left unmarked: margins, gutters, and space between columns, lines of type, graphics, figures, or objects drawn or depicted. The term arises from graphic design practice, where printing processes generally use white paper. White space should not be considered merely "blank" space — it is an important element of design which enables the objects in it to exist at all; the balance between positive (or non-white) and the use of negative spaces is key to aesthetic composition. Inexpert use of white space, however, can make a page appear incomplete. When space is at a premium, such as in some types of magazine, newspaper, and yellow pages advertising, white space is limited in order to get as much vital information on to the page as possible
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3D Graphics
3D computer graphics
3D computer graphics
or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. Such images may be stored for viewing later or displayed in real-time. 3D computer graphics
3D computer graphics
rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer vector graphics in the wire-frame model and 2D computer raster graphics in the final rendered display. In computer graphics software, the distinction between 2D and 3D is occasionally blurred; 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, and 3D may use 2D rendering techniques. 3D computer graphics
3D computer graphics
are often referred to as 3D models
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Depth Of Field
In optics, particularly as it relates to film and photography, the optical phenomena known as depth of field (DOF), is the distance about the Plane of Focus (POF) where objects appear acceptably sharp in an image. Although an optical imaging system can precisely focus on only one plane at a time, the decrease in sharpness is gradual on each side of the POF so that within the DOF, the unsharpness is imperceptible under normal viewing conditions. In some cases, it may be desirable to have the entire image sharp, and a large DOF is appropriate. In other cases, a small DOF may be more effective, emphasizing the subject while de-emphasizing the foreground and background
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Scheimpflug Principle
The Scheimpflug principle
Scheimpflug principle
is a geometric rule that describes the orientation of the plane of focus of an optical system (such as a camera) when the lens plane is not parallel to the image plane. It is commonly applied to the use of camera movements on a view camera. It is also the principle used in corneal pachymetry, the mapping of corneal topography, done prior to refractive eye surgery such as LASIK, and used for early detection of keratoconus
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Aesthetic Canon
A canon in the sphere of visual arts and aesthetics, or an aesthetic canon, is a rule for proportions, so as to produce a harmoniously formed figure.Contents1 Evolution 2 Proportions in art 3 Notes 4 See alsoEvolution[edit] Main article: Female body shape By extension, the norms of a certain epoch as to what is or is not considered beautiful may be called a canon of beauty. These norms have varied over time and what is considered beautiful in one era may not necessarily be so in another. Canons of beauty follow the evolution of fashion and are dependent on the evolution of physical decoration techniques such as hairdressing or make up. Under France's Ancien Régime, canons of beauty required a woman to have as white a skin as possible. This was achieved (sometimes to the danger of health) by rouge and face powders as well as 'mouches', fake moles made of black muslin glued onto the face or chest
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Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
(US: /seɪˈzæn/ or UK: /sɪˈzæn/; French: [pɔl sezan]; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist
Post-Impressionist
painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects. Cézanne is said to have formed the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism
Impressionism
and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism
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Still Life
A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, etc.).[1] With origins in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Ancient Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
art, still-life painting emerged as a distinct genre and professional specialization in Western painting
Western painting
by the late 16th century, and has remained significant since then. A still-life form gives the artist more freedom in the arrangement of elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life, as a particular genre, began with Netherlandish painting of the 16th and 17th centuries, and the English term still life derives from the Dutch word stilleven
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Raising Of Lazarus
The raising of Lazarus or the resurrection of Lazarus, recounted only in the Gospel of John (John 11:1–44), is a miracle of Jesus in which Jesus brings Lazarus of Bethany back to life four days after his burial.[1][2] In John, this is the last of the miracles that Jesus performs before the Passion and his own resurrection.Contents1 Background 2 Bible narrative 3 Interpretation 4 Cultural references 5 See also 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] Lazarus is the brother of Martha and Mary. The family lives in the village of Bethany, about two miles east of Jerusalem on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives. Bible narrative[edit]The Raising of Lazarus, Oil on canvas, c. 1517–1519, Sebastiano del Piombo (National Gallery, London)According to John 11:1-44, Jesus receives a message that Lazarus is ill, and his two sisters are seeking his help. Jesus tells his followers: "This sickness will not end in death
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Geertgen Tot Sint Jans
Geertgen tot Sint Jans
Geertgen tot Sint Jans
(c. 1465 – c. 1495), also known as Geertgen van Haarlem,[1][2] Gerrit van Haarlem, Gerrit Gerritsz, Gheertgen,[3] Geerrit,[2] Gheerrit,[3] or any other diminutive form of Gerald,[4] was an Early Netherlandish painter from the northern Low Countries
Low Countries
in the Holy Roman Empire. No contemporary documentation of his life has been traced, and the earliest published account of his life and work is from 1604, in Karel van Mander's Schilder-boeck.[5] According to van Mander, Geertgen was probably a pupil of Albert van Ouwater,[6] one of the first oil painters in the northern Low Countries. Both painters lived in the city of Haarlem,[7] where Geertgen was attached to the house of the Knights of Saint John, perhaps as a lay brother, for whom he painted an altarpiece. In van Mander's book he states that Geertgen took the name of St
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Salvador Dalí
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Dalí de Púbol
Púbol
(11 May 1904 – 23 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
(/ˈdɑːli, dɑːˈli/[1][2] Catalan: [səɫβəˈðo ðəˈɫi]; Spanish: [salβaˈðoɾ ðaˈli]), was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance
Renaissance
masters.[3][4] His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931
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Guercino
Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 – December 22, 1666), best known as Guercino,[1] or il Guercino
Guercino
[ɡwerˈtʃiːno], was an Italian Baroque
Baroque
painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome
Rome
and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.Contents1 Biography 2 Career 3 Works 4 Exhibitions 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit]Guercino's strabismus is evident in this period portrait of him.Caravaggio's influence is manifest in this canvas Christ and the Woman of Samaria Guercino
Guercino
- The Persian SibylGiovanni Francesco Barbieri was born in Cento, a village between Bologna
Bologna
and Ferrara
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