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Composer
A COMPOSER ( Latin compōnō; literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates or writes music , which can be vocal music (for a singer or choir ), instrumental music (e.g., for solo piano , string quartet , wind quintet or orchestra ) or music which combines both instruments and voices (e.g., opera or art song , which is a singer accompanied by a pianist). The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation (e.g., sheet music scores). Many composers are also skilled performers, either as singers, instrumentalists , or conductors . Examples of composers who are also well known for their ability as performers include J. S. Bach (an organist ), Mozart (violin and piano ), and Beethoven , Liszt and Chopin (all skilled pianists)
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Fermata
A FERMATA ("from fermare, to stay, or stop," also known as a HOLD, PAUSE, colloquially a BIRDSEYE or CYCLOPS EYE, or as a GRAND PAUSE when placed on a note or a rest ) is a symbol of musical notation indicating that the note should be prolonged beyond the normal duration its note value would indicate. Exactly how much longer it is held is up to the discretion of the performer or conductor, but twice as long is common. It is usually printed above but can be occasionally below (when it is upside down) the note to be extended. When a fermata is placed over a bar or double-bar, it is used to indicate the end of a phrase or section of a work. In a concerto , it indicates the point at which the soloist is to play a cadenza . A fermata can occur at the end of a piece (or movement ) or in the middle of a piece. It can be followed by either a brief rest or more notes
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Vibrato
VIBRATO (Italian , from past participle of "vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch . It is used to add expression to vocal and instrumental music. Vibrato is typically characterised in terms of two factors: the amount of pitch variation ("extent of vibrato") and the speed with which the pitch is varied ("rate of vibrato"). In singing it can occur spontaneously through variations in the larynx . The vibrato of a string instrument and wind instrument is an imitation of that vocal function
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Musical Phrasing
MUSICAL PHRASING refers to the way a musician shapes a sequence of notes in a passage of music to express an emotion or impression. A musician accomplishes this by interpreting the music—from memory or sheet music —by altering tone , tempo , dynamics , articulation , inflection, and other characteristics. Phrasing can emphasise a concept in the music or a message in the lyrics, or it can digress from the composer's intention. For example, accelerating the tempo or prolonging a note may add tension. Giuseppe Cambini —a composer, violinist, and music teacher of the Classical period —had this to say about violin phrasing: The bow can express the affections of the soul: but besides there being no signs that indicate them, such signs, even were one to invent them, would become so numerous that the music, already too full of indications, would become a formless mass to the eyes, almost impossible to decipher
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Bassline
A BASSLINE (also known as a BASS LINE or BASS PART) is the term used in many styles of popular music , such as jazz , blues , funk , dub and electronic , or traditional music , for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass , double bass , cello , tuba or keyboard (piano , Hammond organ
Hammond organ
, electric organ, or synthesizer). It is also used sometimes in classical music. In unaccompanied solo performance, basslines may simply be played in the lower register of any instrument such as guitar or piano while melody and/or further accompaniment is provided in the middle or upper register. In solo music for piano and pipe organ, these instruments have an excellent lower register that can be used to play a deep bassline. On organs, the bass line is typically played using the pedal keyboard and massive 16' and 32' bass pipes
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Country Music
COUNTRY MUSIC (frequently referred to as just COUNTRY) is a musical genre that originated in the Southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk music (especially Appalachian folk music ) and blues . Country music
Country music
often consists of ballads and dance tunes with generally simple forms and harmonies accompanied by mostly string instruments such as banjos , electric and acoustic guitars , steel guitars (such as pedal steels and dobros ), and fiddles as well as harmonicas . Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history . According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music; it came to encompass Western music , which evolved parallel to hillbilly music from similar roots, in the mid-20th century
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Portamento
In music, PORTAMENTO (plural: portamenti, from Italian : portamento, meaning "carriage" or "carrying") is a pitch sliding from one note to another. The term originated from the Italian expression "portamento della voce" (carriage of the voice), denoting from the beginning of the 17th century its use in vocal performances and its emulation by members of the violin family and certain wind instruments, and is sometimes used interchangeably with anticipation . It is also applied to one type of glissando as well as to the "glide" function of synthesizers . CONTENTS * 1 Vocal portamento * 2 Opinions of vocal portamento * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading VOCAL PORTAMENTOIn the first example, Rodolfo's first aria in La Sonnambula
La Sonnambula
(1831), the portamento is indicated by the slur between the third and fourth notes
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Overture
OVERTURE (from French ouverture, lit. "opening") in music is the term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera . During the early Romantic era
Romantic era
, composers such as Beethoven and Mendelssohn began to use the term to refer to independent, self-existing instrumental, programmatic works that presaged genres such as the symphonic poem . These were "at first undoubtedly intended to be played at the head of a programme". CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 17th century * 1.1.1 French overture * 1.1.2 Italian overture * 1.2 18th century * 1.3 19th-century opera * 2 Concert overture * 2.1 Early 19th century * 2.2 Later 19th century * 2.3 20th century * 3 Film * 4 List of standard repertoire * 5 Notes * 6 References HISTORY17TH CENTURYThe idea of an instrumental opening to opera existed during the 17th century
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Ornamentation (music)
In music , ORNAMENTS or EMBELLISHMENTS are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony ), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament " that line (or harmony), provide added interest and variety, and give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a central, main note . There are many types of ornaments, ranging from the addition of a single, short grace note before a main note to the performance of a virtuostic and flamboyant trill. The amount of ORNAMENTATION in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive (it was often extensive in the Baroque
Baroque
period, from 1600 to 1750) to relatively little or even none. The word agrément is used specifically to indicate the French Baroque
Baroque
style of ornamentation
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Urtext Edition
An URTEXT EDITION of a work of classical music is a printed version intended to reproduce the original intention of the composer as exactly as possible, without any added or changed material. Other kinds of editions distinct from urtext are FACSIMILE and INTERPRETIVE editions, discussed below. CONTENTS * 1 Preparing urtext editions * 2 Types of editions * 2.1 Facsimile editions * 2.2 Interpretive editions * 3 Authenticity * 4 What editions are currently used? * 5 List of publishers who issue urtext editions * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links PREPARING URTEXT EDITIONSThe sources for an urtext edition include the autograph (that is, the manuscript produced in the composer's hand), hand copies made by the composer's students and assistants, the first published edition, and other early editions
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Aleatoric Music
ALEATORIC MUSIC (also ALEATORY MUSIC or CHANCE MUSIC; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice ") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance , and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s). The term is most often associated with procedures in which the chance element involves a relatively limited number of possibilities. The term became known to European composers through lectures by acoustician Werner Meyer-Eppler at the Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music
Music
in the beginning of the 1950s. According to his definition, “a process is said to be aleatoric if its course is determined in general but depends on chance in detail” (Meyer-Eppler 1957 , 55)
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Aus Den Sieben Tagen
AUS DEN SIEBEN TAGEN (From the Seven Days) is a collection of 15 text compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen , composed in May 1968, in reaction to a personal crisis, and characterized as "Intuitive music "—music produced primarily from the intuition rather than the intellect of the performer(s). It is Work Number 26 in the composer's catalog of works. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Related works * 4 Discography * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORYThe seven days of the title were 7–13 May 1968. Although this coincided with the beginning of the May 1968 protests and general strike in Paris
Paris
, Stockhausen does not appear to have been aware of them at the time. These texts were written at Stockhausen's home in Kürten during the first five of those days, at night or late in the evening (Stockhausen 1978 , 149 and 529)
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Wind Chimes
WIND CHIMES are a type of percussion instrument constructed from suspended tubes , rods, bells or other objects that are often made of metal or wood. The tubes or rods are suspended along with some type of weight or surface which the tubes or rods can strike when they or another wind-catching surface are blown by the natural movement of air outside. They are usually hung outside of a building or residence as a visual and aural garden ornament . Since the percussion instruments are struck according to the random effects of the wind blowing the chimes, wind chimes have been considered an example of chance-based music . The tubes or rods may sound either indistinct pitches, or fairly distinct pitches. Wind
Wind
chimes that sound fairly distinct pitches can, through the chance movement of air, create simple melodies or broken chords
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Rock Music
ROCK MUSIC is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll " in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily on the African-American genres of blues and rhythm and blues , and from country music . Rock music
Rock music
also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk , and incorporated influences from jazz , classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar , usually as part of a rock group with electric bass and drums and one or more singers . Typically, rock is song -based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form , but the genre has become extremely diverse
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Blues
BLUES is a genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States
United States
around the end of the 19th century. The genre developed from roots in African musical traditions , African-American
African-American
work songs , spirituals , and folk music . Blues incorporated spirituals , work songs , field hollers , shouts , chants , and rhymed simple narrative ballads . The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz , rhythm and blues and rock and roll , is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions , of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes (or "worried notes"), usually thirds or fifths flattened in pitch , are also an essential part of the sound. Blues
Blues
shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove
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Vocal Music
VOCAL MUSIC is a type of music performed by one or more singers, either with instrumental accompaniment, or without instrumental accompaniment (a cappella ), in which singing provides the main focus of the piece. Music which employs singing but does not feature it prominently is generally considered instrumental music (e.g. the wordless women's choir in the final movement of Holst 's The Planets ) as is music without singing. Music without any non-vocal instrumental accompaniment is referred to as a cappella . Vocal music typically features sung words called lyrics , although there are notable examples of vocal music that are performed using non-linguistic syllables, sounds, or noises, sometimes as musical onomatopoeia . A short piece of vocal music with lyrics is broadly termed a song. Vocal music is probably the oldest form of music, since it does not require any instrument besides the human voice
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