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Composer
A COMPOSER ( Latin _compōnō_; literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates or writes music , which can be vocal music (for a singer or choir ), instrumental music (e.g., for solo piano , string quartet , wind quintet or orchestra ) or music which combines both instruments and voices (e.g., opera or art song , which is a singer accompanied by a pianist). The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation (e.g., sheet music scores). Many composers are also skilled performers, either as singers, instrumentalists , or conductors . Examples of composers who are also well known for their ability as performers include J. S. Bach (an organist ), Mozart (violin and piano ), and Beethoven , Liszt and Chopin (all skilled pianists). Involvement in practical music-making provides a composer with insight into the diverse musical elements needed for a good piece of music and it can give them practical guidance with their compositions. In broader usage, "composer" can designate people who participate in other musical traditions who create music, as well as those who create music by means other than written notation: for example, Blues or folk singers and guitarists who create songs through improvisation and recording and popular music writers of musical theatre songs and arrangements
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Composer (other)
A COMPOSER is a person who creates or writes music. COMPOSER may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Computing * 3 Other uess * 4 See also MUSIC * Composer (album) , a 1996 album by Cedar Walton * "The Composer ", a 1969 song by Diana Ross font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title COMPOSER. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Composer_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Louis-Nicolas Clérambault
LOUIS-NICOLAS CLéRAMBAULT (19 December 1676 – 26 October 1749) was a French musician, best known as an organist and composer . He was born, and died, in Paris . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 2.1 By opus number * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYClérambault came from a musical family (his father and two of his sons were also musicians). While very young, he learned to play the violin and harpsichord and he studied the organ with André Raison . Clérambault also studied composition and voice with Jean-Baptiste Moreau . Clérambault became the organist at the church of the Grands-Augustins and entered the service of Madame de Maintenon . After the death of Louis XIV and Guillaume-Gabriel Nivers , he succeeded the latter at the organ of the church of Saint-Sulpice and the royal house of Saint-Cyr, an institution for young girls from the poor nobility. He was responsible there for music, the organ, directing chants and choir, etc. It was in this post—it remained his after the death of Madame de Maintenon—that he developed the genre of the "French cantata " of which he was the uncontested master. In 1719 he succeeded his teacher André Raison at the organs of the church of the Grands-Jacobins
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Music
MUSIC is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time . The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony ), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo , meter , and articulation ), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping ; there are solely instrumental pieces , solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment ) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (_mousike_; "art of the Muses "). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies , and so on), the criticism of music , the study of the history of music , and the aesthetic examination of music . Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres " and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to
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Vocal Music
VOCAL MUSIC is a type of music performed by one or more singers, either with instrumental accompaniment, or without instrumental accompaniment (a cappella ), in which singing provides the main focus of the piece. Music which employs singing but does not feature it prominently is generally considered instrumental music (e.g. the wordless women's choir in the final movement of Holst 's The Planets ) as is music without singing. Music without any non-vocal instrumental accompaniment is referred to as _a cappella _. Vocal music typically features sung words called lyrics , although there are notable examples of vocal music that are performed using non-linguistic syllables, sounds, or noises, sometimes as musical onomatopoeia . A short piece of vocal music with lyrics is broadly termed a song. Vocal music is probably the oldest form of music, since it does not require any instrument besides the human voice . All musical cultures have some form of vocal music
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Singer
SINGING is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality , rhythm , and a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a SINGER or VOCALIST. Singers perform music (arias , recitatives , songs , etc.) that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments . Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists, or accompanied by anything from a single instrument (as in art song or some jazz styles) up to a symphony orchestra or big band . Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera , Hindustani music , and religious music styles such as gospel , traditional music styles, world music , jazz , blues , gazal and popular music styles such as pop , rock , electronic dance music , and filmi . American jazz singer and songwriter Billie Holiday in New York City in 1947 Singing can be formal or informal, arranged or improvised. It may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual, as part of music education , or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication, instruction, and regular practice . If practice is done on a regular basis then the sounds can become more clear and strong
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Choir
A CHOIR (/ˈkwaɪ.ər/ ) (also known as a QUIRE, CHORALE or CHORUS) is a musical ensemble of singers. CHORAL MUSIC, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the Medieval era to the present, or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor , who leads the performances with arm and face gestures. A body of singers who perform together as a group is called a choir or chorus. The former term is very often applied to groups affiliated with a church (whether or not they actually occupy the choir ) and the second to groups that perform in theatres or concert halls, but this distinction is far from rigid. Choirs may sing without instrumental accompaniment, with the accompaniment of a piano or pipe organ , with a small ensemble (e.g., harpsichord , cello and double bass for a Baroque piece), or with a full orchestra of 70 to 100 musicians. The term "Choir" has the secondary definition of a subset of an ensemble; thus one speaks of the "woodwind choir" of an orchestra, or different "choirs" of voices or instruments in a polychoral composition. In typical 18th- to 21st-century oratorios and masses , chorus or choir is usually understood to imply more than one singer per part, in contrast to the quartet of soloists also featured in these works
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Piano
The PIANO is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard , which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word _piano_ is a shortened form of _pianoforte_, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from _gravicembalo col piano e forte_ and _fortepiano _. The Italian musical terms _piano_ and _forte_ indicate "soft" and "loud" respectively, in this context referring to the variations in volume (i.e., loudness) produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, and the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had a quieter sound and smaller dynamic range. An acoustic piano usually has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings , which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer (typically padded with firm felt) to strike the strings. The hammer rebounds from the strings, and the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency
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String Quartet
A STRING QUARTET is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group. The string quartet is one of the most prominent chamber ensembles in classical music , with most major composers, from the mid to late 18th century onwards, writing string quartets. The string quartet was developed into its current form by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn , with his works in the 1750s establishing the genre. Ever since Haydn's day the string quartet has been considered a prestigious form and represents one of the true tests of the composer's art. With four parts to play with, a composer working in anything like the classical key system has enough lines to fashion a full argument, but none to spare for padding. The closely related characters of the four instruments, moreover, while they cover in combination an ample compass of pitch, do not lend themselves to indulgence in purely colouristic effects. Thus, where the composer of symphonies commands the means for textural enrichment beyond the call of his harmonic discourse, and where the concerto medium offers the further resource of personal characterization and drama in the individual-pitted-against-the-mass vein, the writer of string quartets must perforce concentrate on the bare bones of musical logic
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Wind Quintet
A WIND QUINTET, also known as a WOODWIND QUINTET, is a group of five wind players (most commonly flute , oboe , clarinet , horn and bassoon ). The term also applies to a composition for such a group. Unlike the string quartet with its homogeneous blend of color, the instruments in a wind quintet differ from each other considerably in technique, idiom, and timbre . The modern wind quintet sprang from the ensemble favored in the court of Joseph II in late 18th century Vienna : two oboes, two clarinets, two (natural) horns , and two bassoons. The influence of Haydn 's chamber writing suggested similar possibilities for winds, and advancements in the building of these instruments in that period made them more useful in small ensemble settings, leading composers to attempt smaller combinations. It was Anton Reicha 's twenty-four quintets, begun in 1811, and the nine quintets of Franz Danzi that established the genre, and their pieces are still standards of the repertoire. Though the form fell out of favor in the latter half of the 19th century, there has been renewed interest in the form by leading composers in the 20th century, and today the wind quintet is a standard chamber ensemble, valued for its versatility and variety of tone color
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Orchestra
An ORCHESTRA (/ˈɔːrkᵻstrə/ or US : /ˈɔːrˌkɛstrə/ ; Italian: ) is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music , which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin , viola , cello and double bass , as well as brass , woodwinds , and percussion instruments , each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments . The term _orchestra_ derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα (_orchestra_), the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus . A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called a _symphony orchestra_ or _philharmonic orchestra_. The actual number of musicians employed in a given performance may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians, depending on the work being played and the size of the venue. The term _chamber orchestra_ (and sometimes _concert orchestra_) usually refers to smaller-sized ensembles of about fifty musicians or fewer
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Opera
OPERA (Italian: ; English plural: _operas_; Italian plural: _opere_ ) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto ) and musical score , usually in a theatrical setting . In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and arias , a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre , such as acting , scenery , and costumes and sometimes includes dance . The performance is typically given in an opera house , accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble , which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor . Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. It started in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri 's mostly lost _ Dafne _, produced in Florence in 1598) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, and Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century. In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe (except France), attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel
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Art Song
An ART SONG is a vocal music composition , usually written for one voice with piano accompaniment, and usually in the classical art music tradition. By extension, the term "art song" is used to refer to the collective genre of such songs (e.g., the "art song repertoire"). An art song is most often a musical setting of an independent poem or text, "intended for the concert repertory" "as part of a recital or other relatively formal social occasion". While many pieces of vocal music are easily recognized as art songs, others are more difficult to categorize. For example, a wordless vocalise written by a classical composer is sometimes considered an art song and sometimes not. Other factors help define art songs: * Songs that are part of a staged work (such as an aria from an opera or a song from a musical ) are not usually considered art songs. However, some Baroque arias that "appear with great frequency in recital performance" are now included in the art song repertoire. * Songs with instruments besides piano (e.g., cello and piano) and/or other singers are referred to as "vocal chamber music ", and are usually not considered art songs. * Songs originally written for voice and orchestra are called "orchestral songs" and are not usually considered art songs, unless their original version was for solo voice and piano
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Classical Music
CLASSICAL MUSIC is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music , including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more accurate term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period ), this article is about the broad span of time from roughly the 11th century to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period . The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows : * the early music period, which includes * the Medieval (500–1400) * the Renaissance (1400–1600) eras. * Baroque (1600–1750)* the common-practice period, which includes * Baroque (1600–1750) * Classical (1750–1820) * Romantic eras (1804–1910)* the 20th century (1901–2000) which includes * the modern (1890–1930) that overlaps from the late-19th century, * the impressionism (1875–1925) that also overlaps from the late-19th century * the neoclassicism (1920–1950), predominantly in the inter-war period * the experimental (1950–present) * the high modern (1950–1969) * contemporary (1945 or 1975–present) or postmodern (1930–present) eras.European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation , in use since about the 16th century
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Musical Notation
MUSIC NOTATION or MUSICAL NOTATION is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols, including ancient symbols or modern musical symbols and including ancient symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets or made using a pen on papyrus , parchment or manuscript paper ; printed using a printing press (ca. 1400s), a computer printer (ca. 1980s) or other printing or modern copying technology . Types and methods of notation have varied between cultures and throughout history, and much information about ancient music notation is fragmentary. Even in the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; for example, for professional classical music performers, sheet music using staves and note heads is the most common way of notating music, but for professional country music session musicians , the Nashville Number System is the main method. Although many ancient cultures used symbols to represent melodies and rhythms , none of them were particularly comprehensive, and this has limited today's understanding of their music. The seeds of what would eventually become modern western notation were sown in medieval Europe, starting with the Catholic church
Catholic church
's goal for ecclesiastical uniformity
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