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Complication (medicine)
COMPLICATION, in medicine , is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease , a health condition or a therapy . The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects and/or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic , i.e., literally brought forth by the physician. Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age , health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily
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Antisepsis
ANTISEPTICS (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive" ) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue /skin to reduce the possibility of infection , sepsis , or putrefaction . Antiseptics are generally distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to be transported through the lymphatic system to destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants , which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects. Disinfectants do not kill bacterial spores e.g., on surgical instruments; a sterilization process is required for that. Even sterilization may not destroy prions . Some antibiotics are true germicides, capable of destroying microbes (bacteriocidal ), while others are bacteriostatic and only prevent or inhibit their growth. ANTIBACTERIALS are antiseptics that have the proven ability to act against bacteria. Microbicides which destroy virus particles are called viricides or antivirals
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Antibiotic
ANTIBIOTICS (From ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antiviotika) also called ANTIBACTERIALS, are a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections . They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria . A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza ; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics. Sometimes the term antibiotic (which means "opposing life") is used to refer to any substance used against microbes , synonymous with antimicrobial. Some sources distinguish between antibacterial and antibiotic; antibacterials are used in soaps and disinfectants , while antibiotics are used as medicine. Antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th century
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Gangrene
GANGRENE is a type of necrosis caused by a critically insufficient blood supply. This potentially life-threatening condition may occur after an injury or infection, or in people suffering from any chronic health problem affecting blood circulation . The primary cause of gangrene is a reduced blood supply as a result of peripheral artery disease . Diabetes
Diabetes
and long-term smoking increase the risk of gangrene. Gangrene
Gangrene
is not a communicable disease; it does not spread from person to person, though the infection associated to some forms can. The types of gangrene differ in symptoms, and include dry gangrene , wet gangrene , gas gangrene , internal gangrene , and necrotizing fasciitis . Surgical removal of gangrenous tissue and antibiotics are the mainstays of treatment for gangrene. After the gangrene is treated, the underlying cause is addressed
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Diabetic Foot
A DIABETIC FOOT is a foot that exhibits any pathology that results directly from diabetes mellitus or any long-term (or "chronic") complication of diabetes mellitus . Presence of several characteristic diabetic foot pathologies such as infection , diabetic foot ulcer and neuropathic osteoarthropathy is called DIABETIC FOOT SYNDROME. Due to the peripheral nerve dysfunction associated with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy ), patients have a reduced ability to feel pain. This means that minor injuries may remain undiscovered for a long while. People with diabetes are also at risk of developing a diabetic foot ulcer . Research estimates that the lifetime incidence of foot ulcers within the diabetic community is around 15% and may become as high as 25%. In diabetes, peripheral nerve dysfunction can be combined with peripheral artery disease (PAD) causing poor blood circulation to the extremities (diabetic angiopathy)
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Puerperal Fever
POSTPARTUM INFECTIONS, also known as PUERPERAL INFECTIONS, is any bacterial infection of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage . Signs and symptoms usually include a fever greater than 38.0 °C (100.4 °F), chills, lower abdominal pain, and possibly bad-smelling vaginal discharge . It usually occurs after the first 24 hours and within the first ten days following delivery. The most common infection is that of the uterus and surrounding tissues known as PUERPERAL SEPSIS or POSTPARTUM METRITIS. Risk factors include Cesarean section
Cesarean section
, the presence of certain bacteria such as group B streptococcus in the vagina, premature rupture of membranes , multiple vaginal exams , manual removal of the placenta , and prolonged labour among others. Most infections involved a number of types of bacteria. Diagnosis is rarely helped by culturing of the vagina or blood. In those who do not improve, medical imaging may be required
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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest . It is recommended in those who are unresponsive with no breathing or abnormal breathing, for example, agonal respirations . CPR involves chest compressions for adults between 5 cm (2.0 in) and 6 cm (2.4 in) deep and at a rate of at least 100 to 120 per minute. The rescuer may also provide artificial ventilation by either exhaling air into the subject's mouth or nose (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation ) or using a device that pushes air into the subject's lungs (mechanical ventilation )
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Shock (circulatory)
CIRCULATORY SHOCK, commonly known as SHOCK, is a life-threatening medical condition of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function. The typical signs of shock are low blood pressure , rapid heart rate , signs of poor end-organ perfusion (i.e., low urine output, confusion, or loss of consciousness), and weak pulses. The shock index (SI), defined as heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure, is an accurate diagnostic measure that is more useful than hypotension and tachycardia in isolation. Under normal conditions, a number between 0.5 and 0.8 is typically seen. Should that number increase, so does suspicion of an underlying state of shock. Blood pressure alone may not be a reliable sign for shock, as there are times when a person is in circulatory shock but has a stable blood pressure
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Medicine
MEDICINE is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others. Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture
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Ribs
The RIB CAGE is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of all vertebrates except the lamprey and the frog . It is formed by the vertebral column , ribs , and sternum and encloses the heart and lungs . In humans, the rib cage, also known as the THORACIC CAGE, is a bony and cartilaginous structure which surrounds the thoracic cavity and supports the pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle), forming a core portion of the human skeleton . A typical human rib cage consists of 24 ribs, the sternum (with xiphoid process ), costal cartilages , and the 12 thoracic vertebrae . Together with the skin and associated fascia and muscles , the rib cage makes up the thoracic wall and provides attachments for the muscles of the neck, thorax, upper abdomen, and back. Projection on the thoracic cage of the heart, the lungs and the diaphragm. The shaded areas indicate the extent of the pleural cavities not filled by the lungs
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Human Sternum
The STERNUM or BREASTBONE is a long flat bone shaped like a necktie located in the center of the chest . It connects to the ribs via cartilage , forming the front of the rib cage , and thus helps to protect the heart , lungs , and major blood vessels from injury. The sternum consists of three regions: the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process . It is one of the largest and longest flat bones of the body. The word sternum originates from the Greek στέρνον, meaning chest
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Blindness
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT, also known as VISION IMPAIRMENT or VISION LOSS, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses . Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses . Visual impairment is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60. The term BLINDNESS is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss. Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking. The most common causes of visual impairment globally are uncorrected refractive errors (43%), cataracts (33%), and glaucoma (2%). Refractive errors include near sighted , far sighted , presbyopia , and astigmatism . Cataracts
Cataracts
are the most common cause of blindness
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Thrombosis
THROMBOSIS is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel , obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system . When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus . Thrombosis
Thrombosis
may occur in veins (venous thrombosis ) or in arteries . Venous thrombosis
Venous thrombosis
leads to congestion of the affected part of the body, while arterial thrombosis (and rarely severe venous thrombosis) affects the blood supply and leads to damage of the tissue supplied by that artery (ischemia and necrosis )
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Endocarditis
ENDOCARDITIS is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart , the endocardium . It usually involves the heart valves . Other structures that may be involved include the interventricular septum , the chordae tendineae , the mural endocardium, or the surfaces of intracardiac devices. Endocarditis
Endocarditis
is characterized by lesions, known as vegetations , which is a mass of platelets , fibrin , microcolonies of microorganisms, and scant inflammatory cells. In the subacute form of infective endocarditis, the vegetation may also include a center of granulomatous tissue , which may fibrose or calcify. There are several ways to classify endocarditis. The simplest classification is based on cause: either infective or non-infective, depending on whether a microorganism is the source of the inflammation or not
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