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Complication (medicine)
COMPLICATION, in medicine , is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease , a health condition or a therapy . The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects and/or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic , i.e., literally brought forth by the physician. Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age , health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily. Complications affect adversely the prognosis of a disease. Non-invasive and minimally invasive medical procedures usually favor fewer complications in comparison to invasive ones. Disorders that are concomitant but are not caused by the other disorder are comorbidities . This conceptual dividing line is sometimes blurred by the complexity of the causation or the lack of definite information about it
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Medicine
MEDICINE is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others. Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism . In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science , most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied , under the umbrella of MEDICAL SCIENCE). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science
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Disease
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function. The study of disease is called pathology , which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system , such as an immunodeficiency , or by a hypersensitivity , including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by _Plasmodium_ ssp.), the term _disease_ is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged. In humans, _disease_ is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain , dysfunction , distress , social problems , or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries , disabilities , disorders , syndromes , infections , isolated symptoms , deviant behaviors , and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories
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Health
HEALTH is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism . In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental, psychological and social changes with environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value, the ambiguity in developing cohesive health strategies, and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete". Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications , including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health
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Therapy
THERAPY (often abbreviated TX, TX, or TX) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis . In the medical field, it is usually synonymous with TREATMENT (also abbreviated TX or TX). Among psychologists and other mental health professionals, including psychiatrists , psychiatric nurse practitioners, counselors, and clinical social workers, the term may refer specifically to psychotherapy (sometimes dubbed 'talking therapy'). The English word _therapy_ comes via Latin _therapīa_ from Greek : θεραπεία and literally means "curing" or "healing". As a rule, each therapy has indications and contraindications . CONTENTS * 1 Semantic field * 2 Types of therapies * 2.1 By chronology, priority, or intensity * 2.1.1 Levels of care * 2.1.2 Lines of therapy * 2.2 By intent * 2.3 By therapy composition * 2.3.1 By matter * 2.3.2 By energy * 2.3.3 By human interaction * 2.3.4 By animal interaction * 2.3.5 By meditation * 2.3.6 By reading * 2.3.7 By creativity * 2.3.8 By sleeping and waking * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SEMANTIC FIELDThe words _CARE_, _THERAPY_, _TREATMENT_, and _INTERVENTION_ overlap in a semantic field , and thus they can be synonymous depending on context . Moving rightward through that order, the connotative level of holism decreases and the level of specificity (to concrete instances) increases
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Symptoms
A SYMPTOM (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient , reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease . A symptom is subjective, observed by the patient, and cannot be measured directly, whereas a sign is objectively observable by others. For example, paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), whereas erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual). Symptoms and signs are often nonspecific , but often combinations of them are at least suggestive of certain diagnoses , helping to narrow down what may be wrong. In other cases they are specific even to the point of being pathognomonic . Main symptoms of acute HIV infection The term is sometimes also applied to physiological states outside the context of disease , as for example when referring to "symptoms of pregnancy ". CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Non-specific symptoms * 1.2 Positive and negative * 2 Possible causes * 3 Symptom versus sign * 4 See also * 5 References TYPESSymptoms may be briefly acute or a more prolonged but acute or chronic , relapsing or remitting . Asymptomatic conditions also exist (e.g
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Pathology
PATHOLOGY (from the Greek roots of _pathos_ (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering", and _-logia_ (-λογία), "study of") is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis . The term pathology itself may be used broadly to refer to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices (including plant pathology and veterinary pathology ), or more narrowly to describe work within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease—mostly through analysis of tissue , cell , and body fluid samples. Used as a count noun , "a pathology" (plural, "pathologies") can also refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases (as in the statement "the many different forms of cancer have diverse pathologies"), and the affix _path_ is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment (as in cardiomyopathy ) and psychological conditions (such as psychopathy ). Similarly, a PATHOLOGICAL condition is one caused by disease, rather than occurring physiologically . A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist
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Medication
A PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG (also referred to as MEDICINE, MEDICATION, or simply as DRUG) is a drug used to diagnose , cure , treat , or prevent disease . Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy ) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control , which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician , physician assistant , or qualified nurse ) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves). Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis , and biopharmaceuticals , which include recombinant proteins , vaccines , blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG ), gene therapy , monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration , biological system affected, or therapeutic effects . An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines
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Surgery
SURGERY (from the Greek : χειρουργική _cheirourgikē_ (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via Latin : _chirurgiae_, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury , to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas (for example, a perforated ear drum ). An act of performing surgery may be called a "surgical procedure", "operation", or simply "surgery". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery. The adjective "surgical" means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse . The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practices surgery and a surgeon\'s assistant is a person who practices surgical assistance. A surgical team is made up of surgeon , surgeon\'s assistant , anesthesia provider, circulating nurse and surgical technologist . Surgery usually spans minutes to hours, but it is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. The term "surgery" can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian
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Adverse Effect (medicine)
In medicine , an ADVERSE EFFECT is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery . An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect ", when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect . If it results from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure, this is called a medical error and not a complication . Adverse effects are sometimes referred to as "iatrogenic " because they are generated by a physician /treatment. Some adverse effects occur only when starting, increasing or discontinuing a treatment. Using a drug or other medical intervention which is contraindicated may increase the risk of adverse effects. Adverse effects may cause complications of a disease or procedure and negatively affect its prognosis . They may also lead to non-compliance with a treatment regimen. Adverse effects of medical treatment resulted in 142,000 deaths in 2013 up from 94,000 deaths in 1990 globally. The harmful outcome is usually indicated by some result such as morbidity , mortality , alteration in body weight , levels of enzymes , loss of function, or as a pathological change detected at the microscopic, macroscopic or physiological level. It may also be indicated by symptoms reported by a patient. Adverse effects may cause a reversible or irreversible change, including an increase or decrease in the susceptibility of the individual to other chemicals, foods , or procedures, such as drug interactions
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Iatrogenic
IATROGENESIS (from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person, resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health, that does not support a goal of the person affected. Some iatrogenic effects are clearly defined and easily recognized, such as a complication following a surgical procedure (e.g., lymphedema as a result of breast cancer surgery). Less obvious ones, such as complex drug interactions, may require significant investigation to identify. While some have advocated using 'iatrogenesis' to refer to all 'events caused by the health care delivery team', whether 'positive or negative', consensus limits use of 'iatrogenesis' to adverse, or, most broadly, to unintended outcomes
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Senescence
SENESCENCE (/sɪˈnɛsəns/ ; from Latin : _senescere_, meaning "to grow old", from _senex_) or BIOLOGICAL AGING (also spelled BIOLOGICAL AGEING) is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms , that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation . The word _senescence_ can refer either to cellular senescence or to senescence of the whole organism. It is commonly believed that cellular senescence underlies organismal senescence. The science of biological aging is biogerontology . Senescence is not the inevitable fate of all organisms and can be delayed. The discovery, in 1934, that calorie restriction can extend lifespan 50% in rats, and the existence of species having negligible senescence and potentially immortal species such as _Hydra _, have motivated research into delaying and preventing senescence and thus age-related diseases. Organisms of some taxonomic groups , including some animals , experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. On the other extreme are accelerated aging diseases , rare in humans. There is also the extremely rare and poorly understood "Syndrome X ," whereby a person remains physically and mentally an infant or child throughout one's life
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Immune System
The IMMUNE SYSTEM is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease . To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens , from viruses to parasitic worms , and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue . In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system , or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity . In humans, the blood–brain barrier , blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier , and similar fluid–brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system , which protects the brain . Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt, and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system; however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and invertebrates
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Prognosis
PROGNOSIS (Greek : πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likelihood of a person's survival. When applied to large statistical populations , prognostic estimates can be very accurate: for example the statement "45% of patients with severe septic shock will die within 28 days" can be made with some confidence, because previous research found that this proportion of patients died. This statistical information does not apply to the prognosis for each individual patient: additional information is needed to determine whether a patient belongs to the 45% who will die, or to the 55% who survive. A complete prognosis includes the expected duration, function, and description of the course of the disease, such as progressive decline, intermittent crisis, or sudden, unpredictable crisis. CONTENTS* 1 Methodology * 1.1 Disease and prognostic indicators * 1.2 End of life * 2 Estimator * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links METHODOLOGYDISEASE AND PROGNOSTIC INDICATORSPrognostic scoring is also used for cancer outcome predictions. A Manchester score is an indicator of prognosis for small-cell lung cancer . For Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, physicians have developed the International Prognostic Index to predict patient outcome
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Non-invasive (medical)
A medical procedure is defined as non-invasive when no break in the skin is created and there is no contact with the mucosa, or skin break, or internal body cavity beyond a natural or artificial body orifice. For example, deep palpation and percussion are non-invasive but a rectal examination is invasive. Likewise, examination of the ear-drum or inside the nose or a wound dressing change all fall outside the definition of non-invasive procedure. There are many non-invasive procedures, ranging from simple observation, to specialised forms of surgery, such as radiosurgery . Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a non-invasive treatment of stones in the kidney , gallbladder or liver , using an acoustic pulse. For centuries, physicians have employed many simple non-invasive methods based on physical parameters in order to assess body function in health and disease (physical examination and inspection ), such as pulse -taking, the auscultation of heart sounds and lung sounds (using the stethoscope ), temperature examination (using thermometers ), respiratory examination , peripheral vascular examination , oral examination , abdominal examination , external percussion and palpation , blood pressure measurement (using the sphygmomanometer ), change in body volumes (using plethysmograph ), audiometry , eye examination , and many others
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Minimally Invasive
MINIMALLY INVASIVE PROCEDURES (also known as MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERIES) have been enabled by the advance of various medical technologies . Surgery by definition is invasive and many operations requiring incisions of some size are referred to as open surgery. Incisions made can sometimes leave large wounds that are painful and take a long time to heal. Minimally invasive surgery encompasses surgical techniques that limit the size of incisions needed and so lessen wound healing time, associated pain and risk of infection. An endovascular aneurysm repair as an example of minimally invasive surgery is much less invasive in that it involves much smaller incisions than the corresponding open surgery procedure of open aortic surgery . This minimally invasive surgery became the most common method of repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms in 2003 in the United States. The front-runners of minimally invasive procedures were interventional radiologists . By the use of imaging techniques, interventional instruments could be directed throughout the body by the radiologists by way of catheters instead of large incisions needed in traditional surgery, so that many conditions once requiring surgery can now be treated non-surgically. Diagnostic techniques that do not involve the puncturing of the skin or incision, or the introduction into the body of foreign objects or materials, are known as non-invasive procedures
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