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Compatibilism
Compatibilism
Compatibilism
is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.[1] Compatibilists believe freedom can be present or absent in situations for reasons that have nothing to do with metaphysics.[2] They define free will as freedom to act according to one's motives without arbitrary hindrance from other individuals or institutions.[citation needed] For example, courts of law make judgments, without bringing in metaphysics, about whether an individual was acting of their own free will in specific circumstances. It is assumed in a court of law that someone could have acted otherwise than in reality
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Counterfactual Conditional
A counterfactual conditional (abbreviated CF), is a conditional containing an if-clause which is contrary to fact. The term "counterfactual conditional" was coined by Nelson Goodman
Nelson Goodman
in 1947,[1] extending Roderick Chisholm's (1946) notion of a "contrary-to-fact conditional".[2] The study of counterfactual speculation has increasingly engaged the interest of scholars in a wide range of domains such as philosophy,[3] human geography, psychology,[4] cognitive psychology,[5] history,[6] political science,[7] economics,[8] social psychology,[9] law,[10] organizational theory,[11] marketing,[12] and epidemiology.[13] In 1748, when defining causation, David Hume
David Hume
referred to a counterfactual case:"… we may define a cause to be an object, followed by another, and where all objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second
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Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
(/hɒbz/; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
of Malmesbury,[2] was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.[3][4] Hobbes is
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John Martin Fischer
John Martin Fischer (born December 26, 1952) is an American philosopher. He is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy
Philosophy
at the University of California, Riverside
University of California, Riverside
and a leading contributor to the philosophy of free will and moral responsibility.[1]Contents1 Education and career 2 Philosophical work 3 Books 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEducation and career[edit] Fischer received his undergraduate degree from Stanford University
Stanford University
and his Ph.D
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R. Jay Wallace
R. Jay Wallace (b. 1957) is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. His areas of specialization include moral philosophy and philosophy of action. He is most noted for his work on practical reason, moral psychology, and meta-ethics.Contents1 Biography 2 Philosophy 3 Selected publications3.1 Books 3.2 Edited books 3.3 Selected articles4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Wallace received his B.A. degree in 1979 from Williams College. He earned the degree of B.Phil. from the University of Oxford in 1983. In 1988, he got his Ph.D. from Princeton University.[1] He has taught at several universities, including: Wesleyan University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
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P. F. Strawson
Sir Peter Frederick Strawson FBA (/ˈstrɔːsən/; 23 November 1919 – 13 February 2006), usually cited as P. F. Strawson, was an English philosopher. He was the Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
(Magdalen College) from 1968 to 1987. Before that, he was appointed as a college lecturer at University College, Oxford, in 1947, and became a tutorial fellow the following year, until 1968. On his retirement in 1987, he returned to the college and continued working there until shortly before his death
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Susan R. Wolf
Susan Rose Wolf (born 1952) is an American moral philosopher and philosopher of action who is currently the Edna J. Koury Professor of Philosophy
Philosophy
at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She taught previously at Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
(1986-2002), the University of Maryland
University of Maryland
(1981-1986) and Harvard University (1978-1981).[1]Contents1 Education and career 2 Philosophical work 3 Awards and honours 4 Works (selection) 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEducation and career[edit] Wolf earned a BA from Yale University
Yale University
in philosophy and mathematics in 1974, followed in 1978, by a PhD in philosophy from Princeton University.[2] Her thesis advisor was Thomas Nagel. After completing her PhD, Wolf began her career teaching at Harvard University. In 1981 she moved to a position at the University of Maryland
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Higher-order Volition
Higher-order volitions (or higher-order desire), as opposed to action-determining volitions, are volitions about volitions. Higher-order volitions are potentially more often guided by long-term convictions and reasoning. A first-order volition is a desire about anything else, such as to own a new car, to meet the pope, or to drink alcohol. Second-order volition are desires about desires, or to desire to change the process, the how, of desiring. Examples would be to desire to want to own[clarify] a new car; meeting the pope; or to desire to quit drinking alcohol permanently
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Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
(/ˈʃoʊpənhaʊ.ər/ SHOH-pən-how-ər; German: [ˈaɐ̯tʊɐ̯ ˈʃoːpm̩ˌhaʊ̯ɐ]; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher
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Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs. Motivation
Motivation
is also one's direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior. An individual is not motivated by another individual
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John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
(20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory and political economy. Dubbed "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century",[6] Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control.[7] Mill was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by his predecessor Jeremy Bentham
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John Locke
John Locke
John Locke
FRS (/lɒk/; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".[1][2][3] Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire
Voltaire
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries
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Summa Contra Gentiles
The Summa contra Gentiles
Summa contra Gentiles
(also known as Liber de veritate catholicae fidei contra errores infidelium, "Book on the truth of the Catholic faith against the errors of the unbelievers")[1] is one of the best-known books by St Thomas Aquinas, written during c. 1259–1265. It was probably written to aid missionaries in explaining the Christian religion
Christian religion
to and defending it against dissenting points of doctrine in Islam and Judaism
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Frithjof Bergmann
Frithjof Bergmann (born 24 December 1930) is a Professor Emeritus of philosophy at the University of Michigan, where he has taught courses on existentialism and Continental philosophy.Contents1 Life and work 2 Books 3 References 4 External linksLife and work[edit] Professor Bergmann first came to the US as a student, where he has lived and worked ever since. He entered the doctoral program in philosophy at Princeton University and studied under Walter Kaufmann, receiving his Ph.D. in 1959 with a dissertation entitled "Harmony and Reason: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Hegel." In addition, Professor Bergmann is a Nietzsche scholar; his publications include "Nietzsche's Critique of Morality" (published in Reading Nietzsche, Oxford University Press, 1988). He spent most of his academic career at the University of Michigan, where he was a professor and visible political activist
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Thomas Aquinas
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalv t ePart of a series onChristianityJesus Christ Jesus
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