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Compass Rose
A COMPASS ROSE, sometimes called a WINDROSE, or ROSE OF THE WINDS, is a figure on a compass , map , nautical chart , or monument used to display the orientation of the cardinal directions : North, East, South, and West—and their intermediate points. It is also the term for the graduated markings found on the traditional magnetic compass . Today, the idea of a compass rose is found on, or featured in, almost all navigation systems, including nautical charts , non-directional beacons (NDB), VHF omnidirectional range
VHF omnidirectional range
(VOR) systems, global-positioning systems ( GPS
GPS
), and similar equipment. Compass rose with the eight principal winds The modern compass rose has eight principal winds
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Timosthenes
TIMOSTHENES of Rhodes
Rhodes
(Greek : Τιμοσθένης) (fl. 270 BCE ) was a Greek navigator and geographer . In the 280s-270s BCE, Timosthenes served as the admiral and chief pilot of the navy of King Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt . He wrote a periplus (a book of sailing directions) in ten books (now lost), and was much admired and cited by other geographers such as Eratosthenes and Strabo
Strabo
. Indeed, Marcian of Heraclea went so far as to accuse Eratosthenes' Geographica of being nothing but the wholesale plagiarism of Timosthenes work
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Winter Solstice
The WINTER SOLSTICE (or HIBERNAL SOLSTICE), also known as MIDWINTER, is an astronomical phenomenon marking the day with the shortest period of daylight and the longest night of the year. In the Northern Hemisphere this is the December solstice and in the Southern Hemisphere this is the June solstice . The axial tilt of Earth and gyroscopic effects of its daily rotation mean that the two opposite points in the sky to which the Earth's axis of rotation points (axial precession ) change very slowly (making a complete circle approximately every 26,000 years). As the Earth follows its orbit around the Sun, the polar hemisphere that faced away from the Sun, experiencing winter, will, in half a year, face towards the Sun and experience summer. This is because the two hemispheres face opposite directions along Earth's axis, and so as one polar hemisphere experiences winter , the other experiences summer
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Eratosthenes
ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE (/ɛrəˈtɒsθəniːz/ ; Greek : Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος, IPA: ; c. 276 BC – c. 195/194 BC ) was a Greek mathematician , geographer , poet , astronomer , and music theorist . He was a man of learning, becoming the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria
Alexandria
. He invented the discipline of geography , including the terminology used today. He is best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth , which he did by applying a measuring system using stadia , a standard unit of measure during that time period. His calculation was remarkably accurate. He was also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth\'s axis (again with remarkable accuracy). Additionally, he may have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun
Sun
and invented the leap day
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe
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Seneca The Younger
SENECA THE YOUNGER (c. 4 BC – AD 65), fully LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA and also known simply as SENECA (/ˈsɛnɪkə/ ), was a Roman Stoic philosopher , statesman, dramatist , and—in one work—humorist of the Silver Age of Latin literature . As a tragedian, he is best-known for his Medea
Medea
and Thyestes . He was a tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero
Nero
. He was forced to take his own life for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero. However, some sources state that he may have been innocent. His father was Seneca the Elder , his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus , and his nephew was the poet Lucan
Lucan

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Equinox
An EQUINOX is the moment in which the plane of Earth
Earth
's equator passes through the center of the Sun
Sun
's disk, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September. On an equinox, day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet. They are not exactly equal, however, due to the angular size of the sun and atmospheric refraction . To avoid this ambiguity, the word equilux is sometimes (but rarely) used to mean a day in which the durations of light and darkness are equal. See Length of equinoctial day and night for further discussion. The word is derived from the Latin aequinoctium, aequus (equal) and nox (genitive noctis) (night)
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Summer Solstice
The SUMMER SOLSTICE (or ESTIVAL SOLSTICE), also known as MIDSUMMER , occurs when a planet's rotational axis , or geographic pole on either its northern or its southern hemisphere , is most inclined toward the star that it orbits. On the summer solstice, Earth's maximum axial tilt toward the Sun
Sun
is 23.44°. (Likewise, the Sun's declination from the celestial equator is +23.44° in the Northern Sky and −23.44° in the Southern Sky .) This happens twice each year (once in each hemisphere), when the Sun
Sun
reaches its highest position in the sky as seen from the north or south pole . The summer solstice occurs during the hemisphere's summer . This is the northern solstice in the Northern Hemisphere and the southern solstice in the Southern Hemisphere
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Anemoi
In ancient Greek religion and myth , the ANEMOI (Greek : Ἄνεμοι, "Winds") were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction from which their respective winds came (see Classical compass winds ), and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. CONTENTS* 1 Mythology
Mythology
* 1.1 Boreas * 1.2 Zephyrus * 1.3 Notus * 1.4 Eurus * 2 Lesser winds * 3 Popular culture * 4 See also * 5 Notes and references * 6 Sources * 7 External links MYTHOLOGYThey are minor gods and are subject to the god Aeolus . They were sometimes represented as mere gusts of wind , at other times were personified as winged men, and at still other times were depicted as horses kept in the stables of the storm god Aeolus , who provided Odysseus
Odysseus
with the Anemoi
Anemoi
in the Odyssey
Odyssey

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Meteorology
Atmospheric physics
Atmospheric physics
Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone (category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming (category) · (portal) * v * t * e METEOROLOGY is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics , with a major focus on weather forecasting . The study of meteorology dates back millennia , though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data
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Aristotle
ARISTOTLE (/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/ ; Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης, pronounced , Aristotélēs; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira , Chalkidice , on the northern periphery of Classical Greece
Greece
. His father, Nicomachus , died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato\'s Academy in Athens
Athens
and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many subjects – including physics , biology , zoology , metaphysics , logic , ethics, aesthetics , poetry , theater, music, rhetoric , linguistics , politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy
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Arctic Circle
The ARCTIC CIRCLE is the most northerly of the abstract five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of the Earth
Earth
. It marks the northernmost point at which the noon sun is just visible on the northern winter solstice and the southernmost point at which the midnight sun is just visible on the northern summer solstice. The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic
Arctic
, and the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone . North of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle, the sun is above the horizon for twenty-four continuous hours at least once per year (and therefore visible at midnight ) and below the horizon for twenty-four continuous hours at least once per year (and therefore not visible at noon ); this is also true within the equivalent polar circle in the Southern Hemisphere , the Antarctic Circle
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Pliny The Elder
PLINY THE ELDER (b. GAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS, AD 23 – 79) was a Roman author , naturalist and natural philosopher , a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, and friend of the emperor Vespasian . Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia (Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias . His nephew, Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus
Tacitus
: For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred. In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Red Sea
The RED SEA (also the ERYTHRAEAN SEA) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean , lying between Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden . To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
, the Gulf of Aqaba , and the Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
(leading to the Suez Canal ). The Red Sea
Red Sea
is a Global 200 ecoregion . The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley . The Red Sea
Red Sea
has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2 (169,100 mi2), is about 2250 km (1398 mi) long and, at its widest point, 355 km (220.6 mi) wide
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Indian Ocean
The INDIAN OCEAN is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth
Earth
's surface). It is bounded by Asia
Asia
on the north, on the west by Africa
Africa
, on the east by