HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Commodore 64
The COMMODORE 64, also known as the C64 or occasionally CBM 64 or VIC-64 in Sweden, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10. 1982). It is listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time, with independent estimates placing the number sold between 10 and 17 million units. Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595 (equivalent to $1,477 in 2016). Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET , the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes (65,536 bytes ) of RAM. It had superior sound and graphical specifications compared to other earlier systems such as the Apple II
Apple II
and Atari
Atari
800 , with multi-color sprites and a more advanced sound processor
[...More...]

"Commodore 64" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Home Computer
HOME COMPUTERS were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC , and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers. Their most common uses were playing video games , but they were also regularly used for word processing , doing homework, and programming
[...More...]

"Home Computer" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . All computer programs , excluding firmware , require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers
[...More...]

"Operating System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

KERNAL
KERNAL is Commodore 's name for the ROM -resident operating system core in its 8-bit home computers ; from the original PET of 1977, followed by the extended but strongly related versions used in its successors: the VIC-20 , Commodore 64
Commodore 64
, Plus/4 , C16 , and C128 . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Example * 3 The name * 4 On device-independent I/O * 5 Notes DESCRIPTIONThe Commodore 8-bit machines' KERNAL consists of the low-level, close-to-the-hardware OS routines roughly equivalent to the BIOS
BIOS
in IBM PC compatibles (in contrast to the BASIC interpreter routines, also located in ROM) as well as higher-level, device-independent I/O functionality, and is user-callable via a jump table whose central (oldest) part, for reasons of backwards compatibility, remains largely identical throughout the whole 8-bit series
[...More...]

"KERNAL" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Commodore BASIC
COMMODORE BASIC, also known as PET BASIC, is the dialect of the BASIC programming language used in Commodore International
Commodore International
's 8-bit home computer line, stretching from the PET of 1977 to the C128 of 1985. The core was based on 6502 Microsoft
Microsoft
BASIC
BASIC
, and as such it shares many characteristics with other 6502 BASICs of the time, such as Applesoft BASIC
BASIC
. Commodore licensed BASIC
BASIC
from Microsoft
Microsoft
on a "pay once, no royalties" basis after Jack Tramiel
Jack Tramiel
turned down Bill Gates
Bill Gates
' offer of a $3 per unit fee, stating, "I'm already married," and would pay no more than $25,000 for a perpetual license
[...More...]

"Commodore BASIC" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

GEOS (8-bit Operating System)
GEOS (Graphic Environment Operating System) is a discontinued operating system from Berkeley Softworks (later GeoWorks
GeoWorks
). Originally designed for the Commodore 64
Commodore 64
and released in 1986, it provides a graphical user interface for this popular 8-bit computer. GEOS closely resembles early versions of the classic Mac OS and includes a graphical word processor (geoWrite) and paint program (geoPaint). A December 1987 survey by the Commodore-dedicated magazine Compute!\'s Gazette found that nearly half of its readers used GEOS. For many years, Commodore bundled GEOS with its redesigned and cost-reduced C64, the C64C. At its peak, GEOS was the third-most-popular microcomputer operating system in the world in terms of units shipped, trailing only MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and Mac OS (besides the original Commodore 64's KERNAL )
[...More...]

"GEOS (8-bit Operating System)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Central Processing Unit
A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic , logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a PROCESSOR, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry. The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
[...More...]

"Central Processing Unit" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

MOS Technology 6510
The MOS TECHNOLOGY 6510 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology, Inc. , and is a modified form of the very successful 6502 . The primary change from the 6502 was the addition of an 8-bit general purpose I/O
I/O
port (only six I/O
I/O
pins were available in the most common version of the 6510). In addition, the address bus could be made tristate . The 6510 was only widely used in the Commodore 64
Commodore 64
home computer and its variants. In the C64 the extra I/O
I/O
pins of the processor were used to control the computer's memory map by bank switching , and in the C64 also for controlling three of the four signal lines of the Datassette
Datassette
tape recorder (the electric motor control, key-press sensing and write data lines; the read data line went to another I/O chip)
[...More...]

"MOS Technology 6510" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

National Television System Committee
NTSC, named after the NATIONAL TELEVISION SYSTEM COMMITTEE, is the analog television system that is used in North America, and until digital conversion was used in most of the Americas (except Brazil
Brazil
, Argentina
Argentina
, Paraguay
Paraguay
, Uruguay
Uruguay
, and French Guiana ); Myanmar
Myanmar
; South Korea ; Taiwan
Taiwan
; Japan
Japan
; and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map). The first NTSC standard was developed in 1941 and had no provision for color. In 1953 a second NTSC standard was adopted, which allowed for color television broadcasting which was compatible with the existing stock of black-and-white receivers
[...More...]

"National Television System Committee" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

PAL
PHASE ALTERNATING LINE (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second ( 576i ). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC
NTSC
and SECAM
SECAM
. All the countries using PAL
PAL
are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB , ISDB
ISDB
or DTMB . This page primarily discusses the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Colour encoding * 2.1 PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC
NTSC
* 2.2 PAL
PAL
vs
[...More...]

"PAL" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Kilobyte
The KILOBYTE is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information . The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) defines the prefix kilo as 1000 (103); therefore one kilobyte is 1000 bytes. The unit symbol for the kilobyte is KB. In information technology , particularly in reference to main memory capacity, kilobyte is traditionally used to denote 1024 (210) bytes. This arises from the powers-of-two sizing common to such memory in digital circuitry. In this context, the symbols K and KB are often used when 1024 bytes is meant. CONTENTS* 1 Definitions and usage * 1.1 1000 bytes * 1.2 1024 bytes * 1.2.1 Kibibyte * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References DEFINITIONS AND USAGE1000 BYTESIn the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) the prefix kilo means 1000 (103); therefore, one kilobyte is 1000 bytes. The unit symbol is kB
[...More...]

"Kilobyte" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Random-access Memory
RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY (RAM /ræm/ ) is a form of computer data storage which stores frequently used program instructions to increase the general speed of a system. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks , CD-RWs , DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory , the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. Usually more than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, and RAM devices often have multiple data lines and are said to be '8-bit' or '16-bit' etc. devices
[...More...]

"Random-access Memory" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Read-only Memory
READ-ONLY MEMORY (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly, with difficulty, or not at all, so it is mainly used to store firmware (software that is closely tied to specific hardware , and unlikely to need frequent updates) or application software in plug-in cartridges . Strictly, read-only memory refers to memory that is hard-wired, such as diode matrix and the later mask ROM (MROM), which cannot be changed after manufacture. Although discrete circuits can be altered in principle, integrated circuits (ICs) cannot, and are useless if the data is bad or requires an update. That such memory can never be changed is a disadvantage in many applications, as bugs and security issues cannot be fixed, and new features cannot be added. More recently, ROM has come to include memory that is read-only in normal operation, but can still be reprogrammed in some way
[...More...]

"Read-only Memory" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

MOS Technology VIC-II
The VIC-II (VIDEO INTERFACE CHIP II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 ( NTSC
NTSC
versions), 6569/8565/8566 ( PAL
PAL
), is the microchip tasked with generating Y/C video signals (combined to composite video in the RF modulator) and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64
Commodore 64
and C128 home computers . Succeeding MOS's original VIC (used in the VIC-20 ), the VIC-II was one of the two chips mainly responsible for the C64's success (the other chip being the 6581 SID )
[...More...]

"MOS Technology VIC-II" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Sprite (computer Graphics)
In computer graphics , a SPRITE is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene. Originally sprites referred to independent objects that are composited together, by hardware, with other elements such as a background. This occurs as each scan line is prepared for the video output device, such as a CRT , without involvement of the main CPU and without the need for a full-screen frame buffer . Sprites can be positioned or altered by setting attributes used during the hardware composition process. Examples of systems with hardware sprites include the Atari 8-bit family ,