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Commodore 64
The COMMODORE 64, also known as the C64 or occasionally CBM 64 or VIC-64 in Sweden, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10. 1982). It is listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time, with independent estimates placing the number sold between 10 and 17 million units. Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595 (equivalent to $1,477 in 2016). Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET , the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes (65,536 bytes ) of RAM. It had superior sound and graphical specifications compared to other earlier systems such as the Apple II
Apple II
and Atari
Atari
800 , with multi-color sprites and a more advanced sound processor. The C64 dominated the low-end computer market for most of the 1980s. For a substantial period (1983–1986), the C64 had between 30% and 40% share of the US market and two million units sold per year, outselling the IBM PC compatibles , Apple Inc. computers, and the Atari
Atari
8-bit family of computers
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Home Computer
HOME COMPUTERS were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC , and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers. Their most common uses were playing video games , but they were also regularly used for word processing , doing homework, and programming . Home computers were usually not electronic kits ; home computers were sold already manufactured in stylish metal or plastic enclosures. There were, however, commercial kits like the Sinclair ZX80
ZX80
which were both home and home-built computers since the purchaser could assemble the unit from a kit. Advertisements in the popular press for early home computers were rife with possibilities for their practical use in the home, from cataloging recipes to personal finance to home automation , but these were seldom realized in practice. For example, using a typical 1980s home computer as a home automation appliance would require the computer to be kept powered on at all times and dedicated to this task
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Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . All computer programs , excluding firmware , require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers . The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 83.3%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (11.2%), and the varieties of Linux
Linux
is in third position (1.55%)
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KERNAL
KERNAL is Commodore 's name for the ROM -resident operating system core in its 8-bit home computers ; from the original PET of 1977, followed by the extended but strongly related versions used in its successors: the VIC-20 , Commodore 64 , Plus/4 , C16 , and C128 . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Example * 3 The name * 4 On device-independent I/O * 5 Notes DESCRIPTIONThe Commodore 8-bit machines' KERNAL consists of the low-level, close-to-the-hardware OS routines roughly equivalent to the BIOS in IBM PC compatibles (in contrast to the BASIC interpreter routines, also located in ROM) as well as higher-level, device-independent I/O functionality, and is user-callable via a jump table whose central (oldest) part, for reasons of backwards compatibility, remains largely identical throughout the whole 8-bit series. The KERNAL ROM occupies the last 8 KB of the 8-bit CPU's 64 KB address space ($E000-$FFFF). The jump table can be modified to point to user-written routines, for example rewriting the screen display routines to display animated graphics or copying the character set into RAM. This use of a jump table was new to small computers at the time. The Adventure International games published for the VIC-20 on cartridge are an example of software that uses the KERNAL
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Commodore BASIC
COMMODORE generally refers to Commodore (rank) , a naval rank. It may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Ranks * 2 Automobiles * 3 Boats * 4 Fiction * 5 Music and music venues * 6 People * 7 Places * 8 Ships * 9 Other uses RANKS* Commodore (rank) , a naval rank * Commodore (Royal Navy) , in the United Kingdom * Commodore (United States) * Commodore (Canada) * Commodore (Finland) * Commodore (Germany) or _Kommodore_ * Air commodore , a rank in the Royal Air Force and other Commonwealth air forces * Commodore (yacht club) , an officer of a yacht club * Commodore (Sea Scouts) , a position in the Boy Scouts of America's Sea Scout program * Convoy commodore , a civilian in charge of a shipping convoy during the Second World WarAUTOMOBILES * Hudson Commodore , an automobile produced from 1941 to 1952 in the US by Hudson Motor Car Company * Opel Commodore , an automobile produced from 1967 to 1982 in Germany by Adam Opel AG * Holden Commodore , an automobile produced since 1978 in Australia by the Holden division of General MotorsBOATS * Commodore 17 , an American sailboat designFICTION * _ The Commodore _, a Horatio Hornblower novel by C. S
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GEOS (8-bit Operating System)
GEOS (Graphic Environment Operating System) is a discontinued operating system from Berkeley Softworks (later GeoWorks ). Originally designed for the Commodore 64 and released in 1986, it provides a graphical user interface for this popular 8-bit computer. GEOS closely resembles early versions of the classic Mac OS and includes a graphical word processor (geoWrite) and paint program (geoPaint). A December 1987 survey by the Commodore-dedicated magazine Compute!\'s Gazette found that nearly half of its readers used GEOS. For many years, Commodore bundled GEOS with its redesigned and cost-reduced C64, the C64C. At its peak, GEOS was the third-most-popular microcomputer operating system in the world in terms of units shipped, trailing only MS-DOS and Mac OS (besides the original Commodore 64's KERNAL ). Other GEOS-compatible software packages were available from Berkeley Softworks or from third parties, including a reasonably sophisticated desktop publishing application called geoPublish and a spreadsheet called geoCalc. While geoPublish is not as sophisticated as Aldus Pagemaker and geoCalc not as sophisticated as Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Excel
, the packages provide reasonable functionality, and Berkeley Softworks founder Brian Dougherty claimed the company ran its business using its own software on Commodore 8-bit computers for several years
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Central Processing Unit
A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic , logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a PROCESSOR, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry. The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic and logic operations , processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations, and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching (from memory) and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components. Most modern CPUs are microprocessors , meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip. An IC that contains a CPU may also contain memory, peripheral interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC)
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MOS Technology 6510
The MOS TECHNOLOGY 6510 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology, Inc. , and is a modified form of the very successful 6502 . The primary change from the 6502 was the addition of an 8-bit general purpose I/O port (only six I/O pins were available in the most common version of the 6510). In addition, the address bus could be made tristate . The 6510 was only widely used in the Commodore 64 home computer and its variants. In the C64 the extra I/O pins of the processor were used to control the computer's memory map by bank switching , and in the C64 also for controlling three of the four signal lines of the Datassette tape recorder (the electric motor control, key-press sensing and write data lines; the read data line went to another I/O chip). It was possible, by writing the correct bit pattern to the processor at address $01, to completely expose almost the full 64 KB of RAM in the C64, leaving no ROM or I/O hardware exposed except for the processor I/O port itself and its data directional register. CONTENTS* 1 Variants * 1.1 MOS 8500 * 1.2 MOS 7501/8501 * 1.3 MOS 8502 * 1.4 MOS 6510T * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links VARIANTS Pin configuration of the most common variation of the 6510 CPU (a mistake labels the /RDY pin as /HALT in this image) MOS 8500In 1985, MOS produced the 8500, an HMOS version of the 6510
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National Television System Committee
NTSC, named after the NATIONAL TELEVISION SYSTEM COMMITTEE, is the analog television system that is used in the Philippines , and until digital conversion was used in most of the Americas (except Brazil , Argentina , Paraguay , Uruguay , and French Guiana ); Burma ; South Korea ; Taiwan ; Japan ; and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map). The first NTSC standard was developed in 1941 and had no provision for color. In 1953 a second NTSC standard was adopted, which allowed for color television broadcasting which was compatible with the existing stock of black-and-white receivers. NTSC was the first widely adopted broadcast color system and remained dominant until the 2000s, when it started to be replaced with different digital standards such as ATSC and others. Most countries using the NTSC standard, as well as those using other analog television standards , have switched to, or are in process of switching to newer digital television standards, there being at least four different standards in use around the world. North America, parts of Central America, and South Korea are adopting or have adopted the ATSC standards, while other countries (such as Japan) are adopting or have adopted other standards instead of ATSC
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PAL
PHASE ALTERNATING LINE (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second ( 576i ). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC
NTSC
and SECAM
SECAM
. All the countries using PAL
PAL
are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB , ISDB
ISDB
or DTMB . This page primarily discusses the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Colour encoding * 2.1 PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC
NTSC
* 2.2 PAL
PAL
vs
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Kilobyte
The KILOBYTE is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information . The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) defines the prefix kilo as 1000 (103); therefore one kilobyte is 1000 bytes. The unit symbol for the kilobyte is KB. In information technology , particularly in reference to main memory capacity, kilobyte is traditionally used to denote 1024 (210) bytes. This arises from the powers-of-two sizing common to such memory in digital circuitry. In this context, the symbols K and KB are often used when 1024 bytes is meant. CONTENTS* 1 Definitions and usage * 1.1 1000 bytes * 1.2 1024 bytes * 1.2.1 Kibibyte * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References DEFINITIONS AND USAGE1000 BYTESIn the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) the prefix kilo means 1000 (103); therefore, one kilobyte is 1000 bytes. The unit symbol is kB. This is the definition recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This definition, and related definitions of prefixes mega- = 1000000, giga- = 1000000000, etc., are used for data transfer rates in computer networks , internal bus, hard drive and flash media transfer speeds, and for the capacities of most storage media , particularly hard drives , flash -based storage, and DVDs
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Random-access Memory
RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY (RAM /ræm/ ) is a form of computer data storage which stores frequently used program instructions to increase the general speed of a system. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks , CD-RWs , DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory , the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. Usually more than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, and RAM devices often have multiple data lines and are said to be '8-bit' or '16-bit' etc. devices. In today's technology, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuits . RAM is normally associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules ), where stored information is lost if power is removed, although non-volatile RAM has also been developed. Other types of non-volatile memories exist that allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have other kinds of limitations on them
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Read-only Memory
READ-ONLY MEMORY (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly, with difficulty, or not at all, so it is mainly used to store firmware (software that is closely tied to specific hardware , and unlikely to need frequent updates) or application software in plug-in cartridges . Strictly, read-only memory refers to memory that is hard-wired, such as diode matrix and the later mask ROM (MROM), which cannot be changed after manufacture. Although discrete circuits can be altered in principle, integrated circuits (ICs) cannot, and are useless if the data is bad or requires an update. That such memory can never be changed is a disadvantage in many applications, as bugs and security issues cannot be fixed, and new features cannot be added. More recently, ROM has come to include memory that is read-only in normal operation, but can still be reprogrammed in some way. Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) and electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) can be erased and re-programmed, but usually this can only be done at relatively slow speeds, may require special equipment to achieve, and is typically only possible a certain number of times
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MOS Technology VIC-II
The VIC-II (VIDEO INTERFACE CHIP II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 ( NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 ( PAL ), is the microchip tasked with generating Y/C video signals (combined to composite video in the RF modulator) and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers . Succeeding MOS's original VIC (used in the VIC-20 ), the VIC-II was one of the two chips mainly responsible for the C64's success (the other chip being the 6581 SID ). CONTENTS * 1 Development history * 2 VIC-II features * 3 Technical details * 3.1 Programming * 3.2 Character graphics * 3.3 Bitmap mode * 3.4 Sprites * 3.5 Scrolling * 3.6 Raster interrupts * 3.7 Memory mapping * 3.8 Registers * 3.9 Colors * 3.10 The VIC-IIe * 4 List of VIC-II versions * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEVELOPMENT HISTORYThe VIC-II chip was designed primarily by Al Charpentier and Charles Winterble at MOS Technology, Inc. as a successor to the MOS Technology 6560 "VIC" . The team at MOS Technology had previously failed to produce two graphics chips named _ MOS Technology 6562_ for the Commodore TOI computer, and _ MOS Technology 6564_ for the Color PET, due to memory speed constraints
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Sprite (computer Graphics)
In computer graphics , a SPRITE is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene. Originally sprites referred to independent objects that are composited together, by hardware, with other elements such as a background. This occurs as each scan line is prepared for the video output device, such as a CRT , without involvement of the main CPU and without the need for a full-screen frame buffer . Sprites can be positioned or altered by setting attributes used during the hardware composition process. Examples of systems with hardware sprites include the Atari 8-bit family , Commodore 64 , Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System , Sega Genesis , and many coin-operated arcade machines of the 1980s. Use of the term _sprite_ has expanded to refer to any two-dimensional bitmap used as part of a graphics display, even if drawn into a frame buffer (by either software or a GPU ) instead of being composited on-the-fly at display time. The act of creating sprites is a form of pixel art . It is sometimes referred to as _spriting_, especially in the hobbyist community. When multiple smaller images are combined into a single bitmap to save memory, the resulting image is called a _sprite sheet_ or _texture atlas _
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Raster Interrupt
A RASTER INTERRUPT (also called a HORIZONTAL BLANK INTERRUPT) is a computer interrupt signal that is used for display timing purposes. It is usually, though not always, generated by the system's graphics chip . Often, the graphics chips used in home computers and video game consoles had limited capabilities. Raster interrupts were incorporated into these video chips allowing skilled programmers to transcend these limitations. A software-serviced interrupt would be set to trigger when a given screen line was refreshed, and the interrupt routine could then reload the chip's registers. In doing so, the graphics chip state could be changed at a specific screen position allowing sprites to be repositioned, additional colors inserted, or graphics modes to be changed giving the graphics hardware the appearance of greater capability than it was inherently endowed