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Comma-separated Values
In computing , a COMMA-SEPARATED VALUES (CSV) file stores tabular data (numbers and text) in plain text . Each line of the file is a data record . Each record consists of one or more fields , separated by commas . The use of the comma as a field separator is the source of the name for this file format . The CSV file format is not standardized. The basic idea of separating fields with a comma is clear, but that idea gets complicated when the field data may also contain commas or even embedded line-breaks. CSV implementations may not handle such field data, or they may use quotation marks to surround the field. Quotation does not solve everything: some fields may need embedded quotation marks, so a CSV implementation may include escape characters or escape sequences. In addition, the term "CSV" also denotes some closely related delimiter-separated formats that use different field delimiters. These include tab-separated values and space-separated values
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Semantic Web
The SEMANTIC WEB is an extension of the Web through standards by the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C). The standards promote common data formats and exchange protocols on the Web , most fundamentally the Resource Description Framework
Resource Description Framework
(RDF). According to the W3C, "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries". The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data that can be processed by machines. While its critics have questioned its feasibility, proponents argue that applications in industry, biology and human sciences research have already proven the validity of the original concept. The 2001 Scientific American
Scientific American
article by Berners-Lee, Hendler , and Lassila described an expected evolution of the existing Web to a Semantic Web
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W3C
The WORLD WIDE WEB CONSORTIUM (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(abbreviated WWW or W3). Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee , the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
. As of 26 July 2017 , the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C) has 476 members. The W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web
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Relation (database)
In relational database theory, a RELATION, as originally defined by E. F. Codd , is a set of tuples (d1, d2, ..., dn), where each element dj is a member of Dj, a data domain . Codd's original definition notwithstanding, and contrary to the usual definition in mathematics, there is no ordering to the elements of the tuples of a relation. Instead, each element is termed an ATTRIBUTE VALUE. An ATTRIBUTE is a name paired with a domain (nowadays more commonly referred to as a TYPE or DATA TYPE ). An ATTRIBUTE VALUE is an attribute name paired with an element of that attribute's domain, and a tuple is a set of attribute values in which no two distinct elements have the same name. Thus, in some accounts, a tuple is described as a function , mapping names to values. A set of attributes in which no two distinct elements have the same name is called a HEADING. A set of tuples having the same heading is called a BODY
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Relational Database
A RELATIONAL DATABASE is a digital database whose organization is based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. The various software systems used to maintain relational databases are known as a relational database management system (RDBMS). Virtually all relational database systems use SQL (Structured Query Language) as the language for querying and maintaining the database
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Newline
In computing , a NEWLINE, also known as a LINE ENDING, END OF LINE (EOL), or LINE BREAK, is a special character or sequence of characters signifying the end of a line of text and the start of a new line. The actual codes representing a newline vary across operating systems, which can be a problem when exchanging text files between systems with different newline representations. The concepts of LINE FEED (LF) and CARRIAGE RETURN (CR) are closely associated, and can be considered either separately or together. In the physical media of typewriters and printers , two axes of motion, "down" and "across", are needed to create a new line on the page . Although the design of a machine (typewriter or printer) must consider them separately, the abstract logic of software can combine them together as one event. This is why a newline in character encoding can be defined as LF and CR combined into one (known variously as CR+LF, CRLF, LF+CR, or LFCR)
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IETF
The INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet
Internet
standards , in particular the standards that comprise the Internet
Internet
protocol suite (TCP/IP). It is an open standards organization , with no formal membership or membership requirements. All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors. The IETF started out as an activity supported by the U.S. federal government , but since 1993 it has operated as a standards development function under the auspices of the Internet
Internet
Society , an international membership-based non-profit organization
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De Jure
In law and government, DE JURE (/deɪ ˈdʒʊrɪ/ ; Latin: de iure, "in law") describes practices that are legally recognized by official laws. In contrast, de facto ("in fact" or "in practice") describes situations that are generally known to exist in reality, even if not legally authorized. The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios, for example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it’s a de facto swimming pool". EXAMPLESIt is possible to have multiple simultaneous conflicting (de jure) legalities, possibly none of which is in force (de facto). After seizing power in 1526, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
made his brother, Umar Din , the lawful (de jure) Sultan
Sultan
of Adal . Ahmad, however, was in practice (de facto) the actual Sultan, and his brother was a figurehead
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Punched Card
A PUNCHED CARD or PUNCH CARD is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. The information might be data for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery . Punched cards were widely used through much of the 20th century in what became known as the data processing industry, where specialized and increasingly complex unit record machines , organized into semiautomatic data processing systems , used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data . While punched cards are now obsolete as a recording medium , as of 2012, some voting machines still use punched cards to record votes. A general-purpose punched card from the mid twentieth century
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Endianness
ENDIANNESS refers to the sequential order used to numerically interpret a range of bytes in computer memory as a larger, composed word value. It also describes the order of byte transmission over a digital link. Words may be represented in BIG-ENDIAN or LITTLE-ENDIAN format, depending on whether bits or bytes or other components are numbered from the big end (most significant bit ) or the little end (least significant bit ). When addressing memory or sending/storing words bytewise, in big-endian format, the most significant byte, which is the byte containing the most significant bit , is sent first (has the lowest address) and the following bytes are sent (or addressed) in decreasing significance order with the least significant byte, which is the byte containing the least significant bit , thus being sent in last place (and having the highest address)
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Word Size
In computing , a WORD is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. A word is a fixed-sized piece of data handled as a unit by the instruction set or the hardware of the processor. The number of bits in a word (the word size, word width, or word length) is an important characteristic of any specific processor design or computer architecture . The size of a word is reflected in many aspects of a computer's structure and operation; the majority of the registers in a processor are usually word sized and the largest piece of data that can be transferred to and from the working memory in a single operation is a word in many (not all) architectures. The largest possible address size, used to designate a location in memory, is typically a hardware word (here, "hardware word" means the full-sized natural word of the processor, as opposed to any other definition used)
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De Facto
DE FACTO (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ ), Latin
Latin
for "in fact", describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally authorized. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called the de facto standard
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Double Quote
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ fleuron, hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category * Portal
Portal
* Book
Book
* v * t * e QUOTATION MARKS, also called QUOTES, QUOTE MARKS, QUOTEMARKS, SPEECH MARKS, INVERTED COMMAS or TALKING MARKS, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech , a quotation , or a phrase
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Escape Character
In computing and telecommunication , an ESCAPE CHARACTER is a character which invokes an alternative interpretation on subsequent characters in a character sequence. An escape character is a particular case of metacharacters . Generally, the judgment of whether something is an escape character or not depends on context. CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Control character * 2 Examples * 2.1 JavaScript * 2.2 ASCII
ASCII
escape character * 2.3 Programming and data formats * 2.4 Communication protocols * 2.5 Bourne shell
Bourne shell
* 2.6 Windows Command Prompt * 2.7 Windows PowerShell
PowerShell
* 2.8 Others * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITIONEscape characters are par