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Comma-separated Values
In computing, a comma-separated values (CSV) file is a delimited text file that uses a comma to separate values (many implementations of CSV import/export tools allow other separators to be used). It stores tabular data (numbers and text) in plain text. Each line of the file is a data record. Each record consists of one or more fields, separated by commas. The use of the comma as a field separator is the source of the name for this file format. The CSV file format is not standardized. The basic idea of separating fields with a comma is clear, but that idea gets complicated when the field data may also contain commas or even embedded line-breaks. CSV implementations may not handle such field data, or they may use quotation marks to surround the field
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Digit Grouping
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form. Different countries officially designate different symbols for the decimal separator. The choice of symbol for the decimal separator also affects the choice of symbol for the thousands separator used in digit grouping, so the latter is also treated in this article. It is often referred to by various other generic names, e.g., decimal mark, decimal marker, or decimal sign, or after the regional representation, e.g., decimal point
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Semantic Web
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
through standards by the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C).[1] The standards promote common data formats and exchange protocols on the Web, most fundamentally the Resource Description Framework
Resource Description Framework
(RDF). According to the W3C, "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries".[2] The Semantic Web is therefore regarded as an integrator across different content, information applications and systems. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
for a web of data (or data web)[3] that can be processed by machines[4]—that is, one in which much of the meaning is machine-readable
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Osborne Computer Corporation
The Osborne Computer Corporation
Osborne Computer Corporation
(OCC) was a pioneering maker of portable computers
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SuperCalc
SuperCalc
SuperCalc
is a CP/M-80 spreadsheet application published by Sorcim in 1981. Visicalc
Visicalc
was the first spreadsheet program but its release for the CP/M
CP/M
operating system ran only on the HP-125, Sharp MZ80, and the Sony SMC-70. SuperCalc
SuperCalc
was created to fill that void and market opportunity. It was originally bundled (along with WordStar) as one of the CP/M
CP/M
applications included with the Osborne 1
Osborne 1
portable computer. It quickly became popular for CP/M[citation needed] and was ported to MS-DOS
MS-DOS
in 1982. An improvement over VisiCalc (though using much the same command structure using the slash key), SuperCalc
SuperCalc
was one of the first spreadsheet programs capable of iteratively solving circular references (cells that depend on each other's results)
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Punched Card
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions
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Endianness
Endianness
Endianness
refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links
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Word Size
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. A word is a fixed-sized piece of data handled as a unit by the instruction set or the hardware of the processor. The number of bits in a word (the word size, word width, or word length) is an important characteristic of any specific processor design or computer architecture. The size of a word is reflected in many aspects of a computer's structure and operation; the majority of the registers in a processor are usually word sized and the largest piece of data that can be transferred to and from the working memory in a single operation is a word in many (not all) architectures
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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De Jure
In law and government, de jure (/deɪ ˈdʒʊərɪ/ or /dɪ ˈdʒʊərɪ/; Latin: de iure, lit. 'in law' Latin pronunciation: [deː juːre]) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.[1] In contrast, de facto ("in fact" or "in practice") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised.[2] The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios: for a colloquial example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it's a de facto swimming pool".[3] Examples[edit] It is possible to have multiple simultaneous conflicting (de jure) legalities, possibly none of which is in force (de facto). After seizing power in 1526, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
made his brother, Umar Din, the lawful (de jure) Sultan
Sultan
of Adal
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IETF
The Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet
Internet
standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet
Internet
protocol suite (TCP/IP). It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements. All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors. The IETF started out as an activity supported by the U.S
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W3C
ERCIM, France; Keio University/SFC, Japan; Beihang University, China[1] and many other offices around the worldRegion servedWorldwideMembership474 member organizations[2]DirectorTim Berners-LeeStaff62Website www.w3.orgThe World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium
Consortium
(W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(abbreviated WWW or W3). Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web
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Relation (database)
In relational database theory, a relation, as originally defined by E. F. Codd,[1] is a set of tuples (d1, d2, ..., dn), where each element dj is a member of Dj, a data domain. Codd's original definition notwithstanding, and contrary to the usual definition in mathematics, there is no ordering to the elements of the tuples of a relation.[2][3] Instead, each element is termed an attribute value. An attribute is a name paired with a domain (nowadays more commonly referred to as a type or data type). An attribute value is an attribute name paired with an element of that attribute's domain, and a tuple is a set of attribute values in which no two distinct elements have the same name. Thus, in some accounts, a tuple is described as a function, mapping names to values. A set of attributes in which no two distinct elements have the same name is called a heading. A set of tuples having the same heading is called a body
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Fortran
Fortran
Fortran
(/ˈfɔːrtræn/; formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation[2]) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM[3] in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, FORTRAN came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics, crystallography and computational chemistry. It is a popular language for high-performance computing[4] and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.[5] Fortran
Fortran
encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with prior versions
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Relational Database
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd
E. F. Codd
in 1970.[1] A software system used to maintain relational databases is a relational database management system (RDBMS). Virtually all relational database systems use SQL (Structured Query Language) for querying and maintaining the database. [2]Contents1 Relational model 2 Keys2.1 Relationships3 Transactions 4 Stored procedures 5 Terminology 6 Relations or tables 7 Base and derived relations7.1 Domain8 Constraints8.1 Primary key 8.2 Foreign key 8.3 Stored procedures 8.4 Index9 Relational operations 10 Normalization 11 Distributed relational databases 12 ReferencesRelational model[edit] Main article: Relational model This model organizes data into one or more tables (or "relations") of columns and rows, with a unique key identifying each row
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Double Quote
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t e Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks,[1][2] are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase
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