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Columbus Limestone
The Columbus Limestone
Limestone
is a mapped bedrock unit consisting primarily of fossiliferous limestone, and it occurs in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia in the United States, and in Ontario, Canada.Contents1 Description1.1 Depositional environment 1.2 Stratigraphy 1.3 Notable Exposures 1.4 Fossils2 Age 3 Economic Uses 4 References 5 See alsoDescription[edit] Depositional environment[edit] The depositional environment was most likely shallow marine. Stratigraphy[edit] The Columbus conformably overlies the Lucas Dolomite
Lucas Dolomite
in northeastern Ohio, and unconformably overlies other dolomite elsewhere
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Geochronology
Geochronology
Geochronology
is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved. Geochronology
Geochronology
is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy
does not directly provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an interval of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted
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Aggregate (geology)
In the Earth sciences, aggregrate has three possible meanings. In mineralogy and petrology, an aggregate is a mass of mineral crystals, mineraloid particles or rock particles.[1][2] Examples are dolomite rock, which is an aggregate of crystals of the mineral dolomite,[3] and rock gypsum, an aggregate of crystals of the mineral gypsum.[4] Lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli
is a type of rock composed of an aggregate of crystals of many minerals including lazurite, pyrite, phlogopite, calcite, potassium feldspar, wollastonite and some sodalite group minerals.[5] In mining geology, an aggregate (often referred to as a construction aggregate) is sand, gravel or crushed rock that has been mined for use as a building material in the construction industry. In pedology, an aggregate is a mass of soil particles
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Deformation (engineering)
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-an applied force (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through work) or a change in temperature (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through heat).The first case can be a result of tensile (pulling) forces, compressive (pushing) forces, shear, bending or torsion (twisting). In the second case, the most significant factor, which is determined by the temperature, is the mobility of the structural defects such as grain boundaries, point vacancies, line and screw dislocations, stacking faults and twins in both crystalline and non-crystalline solids. The movement or displacement of such mobile defects is thermally activated, and thus limited by the rate of atomic diffusion.[1][2] Deformation is often described as strain. As deformation occurs, internal inter-molecular forces arise that oppose the applied force
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Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
(/ˌæpəˈlæʃɪn, -ˈleɪtʃɪn/ ( listen);[note 1] French: les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period. They once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps
Alps
and the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
before experiencing natural erosion.[3][4] The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east-west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians
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Tabulata
The tabulate corals, forming the order Tabulata, are an extinct form of coral. They are almost always colonial, forming colonies of individual hexagonal cells known as corallites defined by a skeleton of calcite, similar in appearance to a honeycomb. Adjacent cells are joined by small pores. Their distinguishing feature is their well-developed horizontal internal partitions (tabulae) within each cell, but reduced or absent vertical internal partitions (septa). They are usually smaller than rugose corals, but vary considerably in shape, from flat to conical to spherical. Around 300 species have been described. Among the most common tabulate corals in the fossil record are Aulopora, Favosites, Halysites, Heliolites, Pleurodictyum, Sarcinula and Syringopora
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Favosites
See textStereo imageLeft frame Right frame Parallel view ()Cross-eye view ()More polished Favosites
Favosites
fossil. Favosites
Favosites
is an extinct genus of tabulate coral characterized by polygonal closely packed corallites (giving it the common name "honeycomb coral").[1] The walls between corallites are pierced by pores known as mural pores which allowed transfer of nutrients between polyps. Favosites, like all coral, thrived in warm sunlit seas, forming colorful reefs, feeding by filtering microscopic plankton with their stinging tentacles.[2] The genus had a worldwide distribution from the Late Ordovician
Ordovician
to Late Permian.[3] Species[edit] The following species of Favosites
Favosites
have been described:[3]F. abnormis F. adaverensis F. afghanicus F. antiquus F. bowerbanki F. burkhanensis F. desolatus F. exilis F. fallax F
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Rugosa
Columnariina† Cystiphyllina† Streptelasmatina†"Tetracorallia" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904Cross-section of Stereolasma rectum, a rugose coral from the Middle Devonian
Devonian
of Erie County, New YorkThe Rugosa, also called the Tetracorallia, are an extinct order of solitary and colonial corals that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian
Permian
seas.[2] Solitary rugosans (e.g., Caninia, Lophophyllidium, Neozaphrentis, Streptelasma) are often referred to as horn corals because of a unique horn-shaped chamber with a wrinkled, or rugose, wall. Some solitary rugosans reached nearly a meter in length. However, some species of rugose corals could form large colonies (e.g., Lithostrotion)
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Spiriferida
See text.A Devonian spiriferid brachiopod from Ohio which served as a host substrate for a colony of hederellids.Spiriferida is an order of extinct articulate brachiopod fossils which are known for their long hinge-line, which is often the widest part of the shell. In some genera (e.g. Mucrospirifer) it is greatly elongated, giving them a wing-like appearance. They often have a deep fold down the center of the shell. The feature that gives the spiriferids their name ("spiral-bearers") is the internal support for the lophophore; this brachidium, which is often preserved in fossils, is a thin ribbon of calcite that is typically coiled tightly within the shell. Spiriferids first appear in the Late Ordovician with the appearance of Eospirifer radiatus
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Gastropod
See text.Diversity65,000 to 80,000 species[3][4]The Gastropoda
Gastropoda
or gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, are a large taxonomic class within the phylum Mollusca. The class Gastropoda
Gastropoda
includes snails and slugs of all kinds and all sizes from microscopic to Achatina achatina, the largest known land gastropod. There are many thousands of species of sea snails and sea slugs, as well as freshwater snails, freshwater limpets, land snails and land slugs. The class Gastropoda
Gastropoda
contains a vast total of named species, second only to the insects in overall number. The fossil history of this class goes back to the Late Cambrian
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Goniatites
Goniatites
Goniatites
is a genus of extinct cephalopods belonging to the family Goniatitidae, included in the superfamily Goniatitaceae
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Calcium Carbonate
Calcium
Calcium
carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone, which contains both of those minerals) and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms, snails, and eggs. Calcium
Calcium
carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale
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Echinoderms
Homalozoa
Homalozoa
† Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea
Homostelea
† Homoiostelea †
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United States Geological Survey
The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people[2] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia
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Chronostratigraphy
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the age of rock strata in relation to time. The ultimate aim of chronostratigraphy is to arrange the sequence of deposition and the time of deposition of all rocks within a geological region, and eventually, the entire geologic record of the Earth. The standard stratigraphic nomenclature is a chronostratigraphic system based on palaeontological intervals of time defined by recognised fossil assemblages (biostratigraphy). The aim of chronostratigraphy is to give a meaningful age date to these fossil assemblage intervals and interfaces.[citation needed]Contents1 Methodology 2 Units 3 Differences between chronostratigraphy and geochronology 4 See also 5 ReferencesMethodology[edit] Chronostratigraphy relies heavily upon isotope geology and geochronology to derive hard dating of known and well defined rock units which contain the specific fossil assemblages defined by the stratigraphic system
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Ohio
Ohio
Ohio
/oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region
Great Lakes region
of the United States. Ohio
Ohio
is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio
Ohio
River
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