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Colorblind
Color
Color
blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.[2] Color blindness can make some educational activities difficult.[2] Buying fruit, picking clothing, and reading traffic lights can be more challenging, for example.[2] Problems, however, are generally minor and most people adapt.[2] People with total color blindness, however, may also have decreased visual acuity and be uncomfortable in bright environments.[2] The most common cause of color blindness is an inherited fault in the development of one or more of the three se
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Color Vision
Color
Color
vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit. Colors can be measured and quantified in various ways; indeed, a person's perception of colors is a subjective process whereby the brain responds to the stimuli that are produced when incoming light reacts with the several types of cone cells in the eye
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Retinitis Pigmentosa
Retinitis
Retinitis
pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.[1] Symptoms include trouble seeing at night and decreased peripheral vision (side vision).[1] Onset of symptoms is generally gradual.[2] As peripheral vision worsens, people may experience "tunnel vision".[1] Complete blindness is uncommon.[2] Retinitis
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Nystagmus
Nystagmus
Nystagmus
is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases)[1] eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.[2] Due to the involuntary movement of the eye, it has been called "dancing eyes".[3][a] In a normal condition, while the head rotates about any axis, distant visual images are sustained by rotating eyes in the opposite direction on the respective axis.[4] The semicircular canals in the vestibule sense angular acceleration. These send signals to the nuclei for eye movement in the brain. From here, a signal is relayed to the extraocular muscles to allow one’s gaze to fixate on one object as the head moves. Nystagmus
Nystagmus
also occurs when the semicircular canals are being stimulated (e.g. by means of the caloric test, or by disease) while the head is not in motion
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Cone Monochromacy
Monochromacy
Monochromacy
(mono meaning one and chromo color) is among organisms or machines the ability to distinguish only one single frequency of the electromagnetic light spectrum. In the physical sense, no source of electromagnetic radiation is purely monochromatic, but can be considered as a gaussian distribution of frequencies shaped around a peak. In the same way a visual system of an organism or a machine cannot be monochromat but will distinguish a continuous set of frequencies around a peak, depending by the intensity of the light. Organisms with monochromacy are called monochromats. Many species, such as all marine mammals, the owl monkey, and the Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(pictured at right) are monochromats under normal conditions
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Trichromacy
Trichromacy
Trichromacy
or trichromaticism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.[1] Organisms with trichromacy are called trichromats. The normal explanation of trichromacy is that the organism's retina contains three types of color receptors (called cone cells in vertebrates) with different absorption spectra. In actuality the number of such receptor types may be greater than three, since different types may be active at different light intensities
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Online Mendelian Inheritance In Man
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a continuously updated catalog of human genes and genetic disorders and traits, with a particular focus on the gene-phenotype relationship. As of 12 February 2017[update], approximately 8,425 of the over 23,000 entries in OMIM represented phenotypes; the rest represented genes, many of which were related to known phenotypes.[1]Contents1 Versions and history 2 Collection process and use 3 MIM classification system3.1 MIM numbers 3.2 Symbols preceding MIM numbers4 See also 5 References 6 External linksVersions and history[edit] OMIM is the online continuation of Dr. Victor A. McKusick's Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM), which was published in 12 editions between 1966 and 1998.[2][3][4] Nearly all of the 1,486 entries in the first edition of MIM discussed phenotypes.[2] MIM/OMIM is produced and curated at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (JHUSOM)
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Cone Dystrophy
A cone dystrophy is an inherited ocular disorder characterized by the loss of cone cells, the photoreceptors responsible for both central and color vision.Contents1 Presentation 2 Genetics 3 Mechanism 4 Diagnosis 5 Treatment 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksPresentation[edit] The most common symptoms of cone dystrophy are vision loss (age of onset ranging from the late teens to the sixties), sensitivity to bright lights, and poor color vision. Therefore, patients see better at dusk. Visual acuity
Visual acuity
usually deteriorates gradually, but it can deteriorate rapidly to 20/200; later, in more severe cases, it drops to "counting fingers" vision
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Cone-rod Dystrophy
A cone dystrophy is an inherited ocular disorder characterized by the loss of cone cells, the photoreceptors responsible for both central and color vision.Contents1 Presentation 2 Genetics 3 Mechanism 4 Diagnosis 5 Treatment 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksPresentation[edit] The most common symptoms of cone dystrophy are vision loss (age of onset ranging from the late teens to the sixties), sensitivity to bright lights, and poor color vision. Therefore, patients see better at dusk. Visual acuity
Visual acuity
usually deteriorates gradually, but it can deteriorate rapidly to 20/200; later, in more severe cases, it drops to "counting fingers" vision
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Blue Cone Monochromatism
Monochromacy
Monochromacy
(mono meaning one and chromo color) is among organisms or machines the ability to distinguish only one single frequency of the electromagnetic light spectrum. In the physical sense, no source of electromagnetic radiation is purely monochromatic, but can be considered as a gaussian distribution of frequencies shaped around a peak. In the same way a visual system of an organism or a machine cannot be monochromat but will distinguish a continuous set of frequencies around a peak, depending by the intensity of the light. Organisms with monochromacy are called monochromats. Many species, such as all marine mammals, the owl monkey, and the Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(pictured at right) are monochromats under normal conditions
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Leber's Congenital Amaurosis
Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life.[2] One form of LCA was successfully treated with gene therapy in 2008.[3][4][5][6] It affects about 1 in 40,000 newborns.[1] LCA was first described by Theodor Leber
Theodor Leber
in the 19th century.[7][8] It should not be confused with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, which is a different disease also described by Theodor Leber.Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Genetics 3 Diagnosis 4 Treatment 5 Popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] The term congenital refers to a condition present from birth (not acquired) and amaurosis refers to a loss of vision not associated with a lesion
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Shaken Baby Syndrome
Abusive head trauma
Abusive head trauma
(AHT), commonly known as shaken baby syndrome (SBS), is an injury to a child's head caused by someone else.[1] Symptoms may range from subtle to obvious.[1] Symptoms may include vomiting or a baby that will not settle.[1] Often there are no visible signs of trauma.[1] Complications include seizures, visual impairment, cerebral palsy, and cognitive impairment.[2][1] The cause may be blunt trauma or vigorous shaking.[1] Often this occurs as a result of a caregiver becoming frustrated due to the child crying.[3] Diagnosis ca
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Monochromacy
Monochromacy
Monochromacy
(mono meaning one and chromo color) is among organisms or machines the ability to distinguish only one single frequency of the electromagnetic light spectrum. In the physical sense, no source of electromagnetic radiation is purely monochromatic, but can be considered as a gaussian distribution of frequencies shaped around a peak. In the same way a visual system of an organism or a machine cannot be monochromat but will distinguish a continuous set of frequencies around a peak, depending by the intensity of the light. Organisms with monochromacy are called monochromats. Many species, such as all marine mammals, the owl monkey, and the Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(pictured at right) are monochromats under normal conditions
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Ultraviolet Light
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
(UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 100 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Macular Degeneration
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.[1] Early on there are often no symptoms.[1] Over time, however, some people experience a gradual worsening of vision that may affect one or both eyes.[1] While it does not result in complete blindness, loss of central vision can make it hard to recognize faces, drive, read, or perform other activities of daily life.[1] Visual hallucinations may also occur and these do not represent a mental illness.[1] Macular degeneration
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