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Color Theory
In the visual arts , COLOR THEORY or COLOUR THEORY is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination. There are also definitions (or categories) of colors based on the color wheel : primary color , secondary color and tertiary color . Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti (c.1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
(c.1490), a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy over Isaac Newton 's theory of color (Opticks, 1704) and the nature of primary colors . From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science . CONTENTS * 1 Color
Color
abstractions * 2 Historical background * 3 Traditional color theory * 3.1 Complementary colors * 3.2 Warm vs
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Color Theory (musician)
COLOR THEORY is the musical alter ego of American singer-keyboardist-songwriter Brian Hazard. Hazard has released nine studio albums, nine EPs , three remix collections, and one set of demos to date. His latest album Adjustments was released on May 27, 2016. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Recordings * 3 Discography * 3.1 Studio albums * 3.2 EPs * 3.3 Remix collections * 3.4 Matt Mancid & Color Theory * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYHazard, the sole member of Color Theory, began studying the piano at the age of thirteen. He took sporadic lessons in high school while also playing piano in the school jazz band and mallet percussion in the drumline. In 1992, Hazard was awarded a Bachelor of Music degree in Piano Performance from California State University, Long Beach . The following year he enrolled in songwriting and recording classes at Golden West College
Golden West College
, and began writing songs for the first Color Theory album, Sketches in Grey. Despite a career spanning over twenty years, Color Theory was listed in the music website Rated Sound’s list of “New Artists for 2016”. RECORDINGSSketches in Grey was a local success when it was released in 1994, quickly selling out the first pressing
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Visual Arts
The VISUAL ARTS are art forms such as ceramics , drawing , painting , sculpture , printmaking , design , crafts , photography , video , filmmaking , and architecture . Many artistic disciplines (performing arts , conceptual art , textile arts ) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design , graphic design , fashion design , interior design and decorative art . Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts , but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft , craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts. The increasing tendency to privilege painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art
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Color
COLOR ( American English ) or COLOUR (Commonwealth English ) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color _categories_, with names such as red , blue , yellow , green , orange , or purple . This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of light . Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light that is reflected from them. This reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space , colors can be identified numerically by coordinates. The RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm (_red_); medium-wavelength, peaking near 534–545 nm (_green_); and short-wavelength light, near 420–440 nm (_blue_). There may also be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model , wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness ). The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species also varies considerably from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different _color_ perceptions that cannot readily be compared to one another
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Color Wheel
A COLOR WHEEL or COLOUR CIRCLE is an abstract illustrative organization of color hues around a circle, which shows the relationships between primary colors , secondary colors , tertiary colors etc. Some sources use the terms color wheel and color circle interchangeably; however, one term or the other may be more prevalent in certain fields or certain versions as mentioned above. For instance, some reserve the term color wheel for mechanical rotating devices, such as color tops or filter wheels. Others classify various color wheels as color disc, color chart, and color scale varieties. As an illustrative model, artists typically use red , yellow , and blue primaries ( RYB color model ) arranged at three equally spaced points around their color wheel. Printers and others who use modern subtractive color methods and terminology use magenta , yellow, and cyan as subtractive primaries . Intermediate and interior points of color wheels and circles represent color mixtures. In a paint or subtractive color wheel, the "center of gravity" is usually (but not always ) black, representing all colors of light being absorbed; in a color circle, on the other hand, the center is white or gray, indicating a mixture of different wavelengths of light (all wavelengths, or two complementary colors, for example)
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Primary Color
A set of PRIMARY COLORS is a small, arbitrary set of pigmented physical media, lights or purely abstract elements of a mathematical colorspace model. Distinct colors from a larger gamut can be specified in terms of a mixture of primary colors which facilitates technological applications such as painting, electronic displays and printing. Any small set of pigments or lights are "imperfect" physical primary colors in that they cannot be mixed to yield all possible colors that can be perceived by the human color vision system. The abstract (or "imaginary") primaries X, Y and Z of the CIEXYZ colorspace can be mathematically summed to specify essentially all colors that can be perceived but these primaries cannot be physically realized due to the underlying structure and overlapping spectral sensitivities of each of the human cone photoreceptors. The precise set of primary colors that are used in a specific color application depend on gamut requirements as well as application-specific constraints such as cost, power consumption, lightfastness, mixing behavior etc. In an _additive_ set of colors, as in coincident projected lights or in electronic visual displays , the primary colors normally used are red , green and blue (but the precise visible light spectra for each color can vary significantly). In a _subtractive_ set of colors, as in mixing of pigments or dyes for printing, the colors magenta , yellow and cyan are normally used
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Secondary Color
A SECONDARY COLOR is a color made by mixing two primary colors in a given color space . Some examples are the following: CONTENTS* 1 Additive secondaries * 1.1 Light (RGB) * 2 Subtractive secondaries * 2.1 Printing (CMYK) * 2.2 Traditional painting (RYB) * 3 See also * 4 References ADDITIVE SECONDARIES Main article: Additive color LIGHT (RGB) Main article: RGB color model For the human eye, the best primary colors of light are red , green , and blue . Combining the wavelengths of light we see as these colors produces the greatest range of visible color. green (●) + red (●) = yellow (●) red (●) + blue (●) = magenta (●) blue (●) + green (●) = cyan (●)That is, the primary and secondary RGB colors (with secondary colors in boldface) are: green YELLOW red MAGENTA blue CYAN green Because color is defined as the wavelengths of the emitted light, combining RGB colors means adding light (thus the term "additive color"), and the combinations are brighter. When all three primaries (or for that matter all three secondaries) are combined in equal amounts, the result is white . The RGB secondary colors produced by the addition of light turn out to be the best primary colors for pigments, the mixing of which subtracts light
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Tertiary Color
A tertiary color is a color made by mixing full saturation of one primary color with half saturation of another primary color and none of a third primary color, in a given color space such as RGB
RGB
, CMYK (more modern) or RYB (traditional). Tertiary colors have specific names, one set of names for the RGB color wheel and a different set for the RYB color wheel. These names are shown below. Brown
Brown
and grey colors can be made by mixing complementary colors . CONTENTS * 1 RGB
RGB
or CMY primary, secondary, and tertiary colors * 2 Traditional painting (RYB) * 2.1 Tertiary- and quaternary-color terms * 3 Comparison of RGB
RGB
and RYB color wheels * 4 See also * 5 References RGB
RGB
OR CMY PRIMARY, SECONDARY, AND TERTIARY COLORS Primary, secondary, and tertiary colors of the RGB
RGB
color wheel The primary colors in an RGB
RGB
color wheel are red , green , and blue , because these are the three additive colors —the primary colors of light. The secondary colors in an RGB
RGB
color wheel are cyan , magenta , and yellow because these are the three subtractive colors —the primary colors of pigment. The tertiary color names used in the descriptions of RGB
RGB
(or equivalently CMYK
CMYK
) systems are shown below
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Leone Battista Alberti
LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI (Italian: ; February 18, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect , poet , priest , linguist , philosopher and cryptographer ; he epitomised the Renaissance Man . Although he is often characterized exclusively as an architect, as James Beck has observed, "to single out one of Leon Battista's 'fields' over others as somehow functionally independent and self-sufficient is of no help at all to any effort to characterize Alberti's extensive explorations in the fine arts." Although Alberti is known mostly for being an artist, he was also a mathematician of many sorts and made great advances to this field during the 15th century. Alberti's life was described in Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
's Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Publications * 3 Architectural works * 3.1 Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini
Rimini
* 3.2 Façade of Palazzo Rucellai
Palazzo Rucellai
* 3.3 Santa Maria Novella
Santa Maria Novella
* 3.4 Pienza * 3.5 Sant\' Andrea, Mantua * 3.6 Other buildings * 4 Painting
Painting
* 5 Contributions * 6 Works in print * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links LIFE Leon Battista Alberti was born in 1404 in Genoa
Genoa

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Isaac Newton
SIR ISAAC NEWTON PRS (/ˈnjuːtən/ ; 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27 ) was an English mathematician , astronomer , and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher ") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution . His book _Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica _ ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics . Newton also made seminal contributions to optics , and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus . Newton's _Principia_ formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler\'s laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity , and using the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets , the tides , the precession of the equinoxes , and other phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the Solar System and demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles
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Colorimetry
COLORIMETRY is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception ." It is similar to spectrophotometry , but is distinguished by its interest in reducing spectra to the physical correlates of color perception, most often the CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities. CONTENTS* 1 Instruments * 1.1 Tristimulus colorimeter * 1.2 Spectroradiometer, spectrophotometer, spectrocolorimeter * 1.3 Color temperature meter * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links INSTRUMENTSColorimetric equipment is similar to that used in spectrophotometry. Some related equipment is also mentioned for completeness. * A tristimulus colorimeter measures the tristimulus values of a color. * A spectroradiometer measures the absolute spectral radiance (intensity) or irradiance of a light source. * A spectrophotometer measures the spectral reflectance , transmittance , or relative irradiance of a color sample. * A spectrocolorimeter is a spectrophotometer that can calculate tristimulus values. * A densitometer measures the degree of light passing through or reflected by a subject. * A color temperature meter measures the color temperature of an incident illuminant. Two spectral reflectance curves. The object in question reflects light with shorter wavelengths while absorbing those in others, lending it a blue appearance
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Vision Science
VISION SCIENCE is the scientific study of vision . Vision science encompasses all studies of vision, such as how human and non-human organisms process visual information, how conscious visual perception works in humans, how to exploit visual perception for effective communication, and how artificial systems can do the same tasks. Vision science overlaps with or encompasses disciplines such as ophthalmology and optometry , neuroscience (s), psychology (particularly sensation and perception psychology , cognitive psychology , linguistics , biopsychology , psychophysics , and neuropsychology ), physics (particularly optics ), ethology , and computer science (particularly computer vision , artificial intelligence , and computer graphics ), as well as other engineering related areas such as data visualization , user interface design , and human factors and ergonomics . Below is a list of pertinent journals. CONTENTS * 1 Journals * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links JOURNALSScientific journals that are exclusively or predominantly concerned with vision science
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Additive Color
ADDITIVE COLOR is color created by mixing a number of different light colors, with shades of red , green , and blue being the most common primary colors used in additive color system. Additive color is in contrast to subtractive color , in which colors are created by subtracting (absorbing) parts of the spectrum of light present in ordinary white light, by means of colored pigments or dyes , such as those in paints , inks , and the three dye layers in typical color photographs on film . The combination of two of the standard three additive primary colors in equal proportions produces an additive secondary color —cyan , magenta or yellow —which, in the form of dyes or pigments, are the standard primary colors in subtractive color systems. The subtractive system using primaries that are the secondaries of the additive system can be viewed as an alternative approach to reproducing a wide range of colors by controlling the relative amounts of red, green, and blue light that reach the eye. Computer monitors and televisions are the most common examples of additive color. Examination with a sufficiently powerful magnifying lens will reveal that each pixel in CRT , LCD and most other types of color video displays is composed of red, green and blue sub-pixels, the light from which combines in various proportions to produce all the other colors as well as white and shades of gray
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Subtractive Color
A SUBTRACTIVE COLOR model explains the mixing of a limited set of dyes , inks , paint pigments or natural colorants to create a wider range of colors , each the result of partially or completely subtracting (that is, absorbing) some wavelengths of light and not others. The color that a surface displays depends on which parts of the visible spectrum are not absorbed and therefore remain visible. Subtractive color systems start with light, presumably white light. Colored inks, paints, or filters between the watchers and the light source or reflective surface _subtract_ wavelengths from the light, giving it color. If the incident light is other than white, our visual mechanisms are able to compensate well, but not perfectly, often giving a flawed impression of the "true" color of the surface. Conversely, additive color systems start with darkness. Light sources of various wavelengths are added in various proportions to produce a range of colors. Usually, three primary colors are combined to stimulate humans’ trichromatic color vision , sensed by the three types of cone cells in the eye, giving an apparently full range. CONTENTS * 1 RYB * 2 CMY and CMYK printing processes * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links RYB Standard RYB Color Wheel Main article: RYB color model RYB (Red, Yellow, Blue) is the formerly standard set of subtractive primary colors used for mixing pigments
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Light
LIGHT is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum . The word usually refers to VISIBLE LIGHT, which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight . Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), or 4.00 × 10−7 to 7.00 × 10−7 m, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430–750 terahertz (THz). The main source of light on Earth
Earth
is the Sun
Sun
. Sunlight
Sunlight
provides the energy that green plants use to create sugars mostly in the form of starches, which release energy into the living things that digest them. This process of photosynthesis provides virtually all the energy used by living things. Historically, another important source of light for humans has been fire, from ancient campfires to modern kerosene lamps. With the development of electric lights and power systems , electric lighting has effectively replaced firelight. Some species of animals generate their own light, a process called bioluminescence . For example, fireflies use light to locate mates, and v