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Color Theory
In the visual arts, color theory or colour theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination. There are also definitions (or categories) of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color[1] and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti
Leone Battista Alberti
(c. 1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
(c. 1490), a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy over Isaac Newton's theory of color (Opticks, 1704) and the nature of primary colors. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science.Contents1 Color
Color
abstractions 2 Historical background 3 Traditional color theory3.1 Complementary colors 3.2 Warm vs
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Black Body
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. A white body is one with a "rough surface [that] reflects all incident rays completely and uniformly in all directions."[1] A black body in thermal equilibrium (that is, at a constant temperature) emits electromagnetic radiation called black-body radiation. The radiation is emitted according to Planck's law, meaning that it has a spectrum that is determined by the temperature alone (see figure at right), not by the body's shape or composition. An ideal black body in thermal equilibrium has two notable properties:[2]It is an ideal emitter: at every frequency, it emits as much or more thermal radiative energy as any other body at the same temperature. It is a diffuse emitter: the energy is radiated isotropically, independent of direction.An approximate realization of a black surface is a hole in the wall of a large enclosure
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Wilhelm Ostwald
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald
Wilhelm Ostwald
(2 September 1853 – 4 April 1932) was a German chemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Chemistry
in 1909 for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities. Ostwald, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Walther Nernst, and Svante Arrhenius are usually credited with being the modern founders of the field of physical chemistry.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career and research 3 Awards 4 Personal life 5 In fiction 6 Publications 7 Works 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Ostwald was born ethnically Baltic German
Baltic German
in Riga, to master-cooper Gottfried Wilhelm Ostwald
Wilhelm Ostwald
(1824–1903) and Elisabeth Leuckel (1824–1903). He was the middle child of three, born after Eugen (1851–1932) and before Gottfried (1855–1918)
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Color Space
A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with physical device profiling, it allows for reproducible representations of color, in both analog and digital representations. A color space may be arbitrary, with particular colors assigned to a set of physical color swatches and corresponding assigned names or numbers such as with the Pantone
Pantone
collection, or structured mathematically, as with NCS System, Adobe RGB or sRGB. A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers (e.g. triples in RGB or quadruples in CMYK); however, a color model with no associated mapping function to an absolute color space is a more or less arbitrary color system with no connection to any globally understood system of color interpretation
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Cyan
Cyan
Cyan
(/ˈsaɪ.ən/[4] or /ˈsaɪ.æn/[5]) is a greenish-blue color.[6][7] It is evoked by light with a predominant wavelength of between 490–520 nm, between the wavelengths of blue and green.[8] In the subtractive color system, or CMYK
CMYK
(subtractive), which can be overlaid to produce all colors in paint and color printing, cyan is one of the primary colors, along with magenta, yellow, and black. In the additive color system, or RGB (additive) color model, used to create all the colors on a computer or television display, cyan is made by mixing equal amounts of green and blue light. Cyan
Cyan
is the complement of red; it can be made by the removal of red from white light. Mixing red light and cyan light at the right intensity will make white light. The web color cyan is synonymous with aqua
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Magenta
Magenta
Magenta
(/məˈdʒɛntə/) is a color that is variously defined as purplish-red,[1] reddish-purple, purplish-pink, or mauvish-crimson.[2] On computer screens, it is made by mixing equal amounts of blue and red.[3] On color wheels of the RGB
RGB
(additive) and CMY (subtractive) color models, it is located midway between red and blue. It is the complementary color of green. It is one of the four colors of ink used in color printing and by an inkjet printer, along with yellow, black, and cyan, to make all the other colors. The tone of magenta used in printing is called "printer's magenta". Magenta
Magenta
took its name from an aniline dye made and patented in 1859 by the French chemist François-Emmanuel Verguin, who originally called it fuchsine
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Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
is the color between green and orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of roughly 570–590 nm. It is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in painting or color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids
Carotenoids
give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, corn, canaries, daffodils, and lemons, as well as egg yolks, buttercups, and bananas. They absorb light energy and protect plants from photodamage.[3] Sunlight
Sunlight
has a slight yellowish hue, due to the surface temperature of the sun. Because it was widely available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux
Lascaux
cave in France has a painting of a yellow horse 17,000 years old
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CMYK
The CMYK color model
CMYK color model
(process color, four color) is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some color printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). The reason for black ink being referred to as key is because in four-color printing, cyan, magenta, and yellow printing plates are carefully keyed, or aligned, with the key of the black key plate. Some sources suggest that the "K" in CMYK comes from the last letter in "black" and was chosen because B already means blue.[1][2] However, some people disagree with this because there is no blue in the primary CMYK colors; it is made with cyan and magenta. Some sources claim this explanation, although useful as a mnemonic, is incorrect, that K comes only from "Key" because black is often used as outline and printed first
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Pantone
Pantone
Pantone
Inc. is a U.S. corporation headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey.[1] The company is best known for its Pantone
Pantone
Matching System (PMS), a proprietary color space used in a variety of industries, primarily printing, though sometimes in the manufacture of colored paint, fabric, and plastics. X-Rite
X-Rite
Inc., a supplier of color measurement instruments and software, purchased Pantone
Pantone
Inc. for $180 million in October 2007.[2]Contents1 Overview 2 Pantone
Pantone
Color
Color
Matching System 3 Pantone
Pantone
Goe System 4 Other products 5 Color
Color
of the Year 6 Intellectual property 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOverview[edit] Pantone
Pantone
began in New York City in the 1950s as the commercial printing company of M & J Levine Advertising
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Hexachrome
Hexachrome is a six-color printing process designed by Pantone
Pantone
Inc. In addition to custom CMYK
CMYK
inks, Hexachrome uses orange and green inks to expand the color gamut for better color reproduction. It is therefore also known as a CMYKOG process. Hexachrome was discontinued by Pantone
Pantone
in 2008 when Adobe Systems stopped supporting the HexWare plugin software. While the details of Hexachrome were not secret, its use was limited by trademark and patent to those obtaining a license from Pantone
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Munsell Color System
In colorimetry, the Munsell color system
Munsell color system
is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity). It was created by Professor Albert H. Munsell in the first decade of the 20th century and adopted by the USDA
USDA
as the official color system for soil research in the 1930s. Several earlier color order systems had placed colors into a three-dimensional color solid of one form or another, but Munsell was the first to separate hue, value, and chroma into perceptually uniform and independent dimensions, and he was the first to systematically illustrate the colors in three-dimensional space.[1] Munsell’s system, particularly the later renotations, is based on rigorous measurements of human subjects’ visual responses to color, putting it on a firm experimental scientific basis
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Ogden Rood
Ogden Nicholas Rood (3 February 1831 in Danbury, Connecticut
Danbury, Connecticut
– 12 November 1902 in Manhattan) was an American physicist[1] best known for his work in color theory.Contents1 Career 2 Legacy 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksCareer[edit] At age 18, Rood became a student at Yale University, but after his sophomore year he transferred to Princeton University
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Bauhaus
Staatliches Bauhaus
Bauhaus
(German: [ˈʃtaːtlɪçəs ˈbaʊˌhaʊs] ( listen)), commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught.[1] The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was founded by Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
in Weimar. The German term Bauhaus—literally "construction house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
did not have an architecture department during its first years of existence. Nonetheless, it was founded with the idea of creating a "total" work of art (Gesamtkunstwerk) in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together
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Visual Arts
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture. Many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts[1] are the applied arts[2] such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.[3] Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts Movement
in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media
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Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Russian: Васи́лий Васи́льевич Канди́нский, tr. Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (16 December [O.S. 4 December] 1866 – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting one of the first recognised purely abstract works.[1] Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa, where he graduated at Grekov Odessa
Odessa
Art school. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship (chair of Roman Law) at the University of Dorpat—Kandinsky began painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30. In 1896, Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbe's private school and then at the Academy of Fine Arts. He returned to Moscow
Moscow
in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I
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Johannes Itten
Johannes Itten
Johannes Itten
(11 November 1888 – 25 March 1967) was a Swiss expressionist painter, designer, teacher, writer and theorist associated with the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
(Staatliches Bauhaus) school. Together with German-American painter Lyonel Feininger
Lyonel Feininger
and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, under the direction of German architect Walter Gropius, Itten was part of the core of the Weimar
Weimar
Bauhaus.Contents1 Life and work 2 Influence 3 Bibliography 4 Notes 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife and work[edit] He was born in Südern-Linden, Switzerland. From 1904 to 1908 he trained as an elementary school teacher. Beginning in 1908 he taught using methods developed by the creator of the kindergarten concept, Friedrich Fröbel, and was exposed to the ideas of psychoanalysis
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