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Colliery
COAL MINING is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content , and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel
Steel
and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa
South Africa
a coal mine and its structures are a COLLIERY, a coal mine a PIT, and the above-ground structures the pit head . In Australia, "colliery" generally refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States
United States
"colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used. Coal
Coal
mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines
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New South Wales
NEW SOUTH WALES (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of Australia
Australia
. It borders Queensland
Queensland
to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia
Australia
to the west. It has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney
Sydney
, which is also Australia's most populous city. In March 2014 , the estimated population of New South Wales
Wales
was 7.5 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 4.67 million, live in the Greater Sydney
Sydney
area. Inhabitants of New South Wales
Wales
are referred to as New South Welshmen
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Thermal Coal
COAL is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called COAL BEDS or COAL SEAMS. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal , can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure . Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon , along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen , sulfur , oxygen , and nitrogen . Coal
Coal
is a fossil fuel that forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat , which in turn is converted into lignite , then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal , and lastly anthracite . This involves biological and geological processes. The geological processes take place over millions of years. Throughout human history, coal has been used as an energy resource , primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals
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Anthracite
ANTHRACITE is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster . It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest calorific content of all types of coal except for graphite . Anthracite
Anthracite
is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism), in which the carbon content is between 92% and 98%. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition . Anthracite
Anthracite
ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame. Anthracite
Anthracite
is categorized into standard grade, which is used mainly in power generation, and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG), the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector
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Dragline
A DRAGLINE EXCAVATOR is a piece of heavy equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining . Draglines fall into two broad categories: those that are based on standard, lifting cranes, and the heavy units which have to be built on-site. Most crawler cranes, with an added winch drum on the front, can act as a dragline. These units (like other cranes) are designed to be dismantled and transported over the road on flatbed trailers. Draglines used in civil engineering are almost always of this smaller, crane type. These are used for road , port construction, pond and canal dredging, and as pile driving rigs. These types are built by crane manufacturers such as Link-Belt and Hyster . The much larger type which is built on site is commonly used in strip-mining operations to remove overburden above coal and more recently for oil sands mining. The largest heavy draglines are among the largest mobile land machines ever built
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Power Shovel
A POWER SHOVEL (also STRIPPING SHOVEL or FRONT SHOVEL or ELECTRIC MINING SHOVEL) is a bucket-equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction . Principle of rope-shovel operation. CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 Use * 3 Operation * 4 Giant Stripping Shovels * 4.1 Notable Examples * 5 See also * 6 Further reading * 7 References DESIGNShovels normally consist of a revolving deck with a power plant, driving and controlling mechanisms, usually a counterweight, and a front attachment, such as a crane ("boom") which supports a handle ("dipper" or "dipper stick") with a digger ("bucket ") at the end. "Dipper" is also sometimes used to refer to the handle and digger combined. The machinery is mounted on a base platform with tracks or wheels. Modern bucket capacities range from 8 m3 to nearly 80 m3. USE Shovel
Shovel
digging overburden
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Open Cast Mining
OPEN-PIT, OPEN-CAST or OPEN CUT MINING is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow . This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining . Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface; that is, where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling (as would be the case for sand, cinder, and gravel). For minerals that occur deep below the surface—where the overburden is thick or the mineral occurs as veins in hard rock—underground mining methods are used to extract the valued material. An open-pit copper mine in Chuquicamata
Chuquicamata

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Bituminous Coal
BITUMINOUS COAL or BLACK COAL is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen . It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite . Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its coloration can be black or sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams . These distinctive sequences, which are classified according to either "dull, bright-banded" or "bright, dull-banded", is how bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. Bituminous coal
Bituminous coal
is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. Its primary constituents are macerals : vitrinite , and liptinite . The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60–80%; the rest is composed of water, air, hydrogen, and sulfur , which have not been driven off from the macerals
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Cerrejón
CERREJóN is a large open-pit coal mine in Colombia. It is located in the southeast of the department of La Guajira , close to the border with Venezuela. The coal mine is situated in the northeastern part of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin , the basin of the Ranchería River , between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in the west and the Serranía del Perijá to the southeast. At Cerrejón, low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal from the Cerrejón Formation is excavated. The mine is one of the largest of its type, the largest in Latin America and the tenth biggest in the world. Cerrejón
Cerrejón
extends over 690 square kilometres (270 sq mi). It is divided into three sections, North Zone, Central Zone and South Zone. Total proven reserves are estimated at 503 megatonnes. In 2016, the mine produced 32,683,315 tonnes (32,167,132 long tons; 36,027,188 short tons)
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Colombia
Coordinates : 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia
Colombia
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order" ANTHEM: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible! (Spanish) O unfading glory! Capital and largest city Bogotá
Bogotá
4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish a RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Open Cut
OPEN-PIT, OPEN-CAST or OPEN CUT MINING is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow . This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining . Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface; that is, where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling (as would be the case for sand, cinder, and gravel). For minerals that occur deep below the surface—where the overburden is thick or the mineral occurs as veins in hard rock—underground mining methods are used to extract the valued material. An open-pit copper mine in Chuquicamata
Chuquicamata

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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a STRATUM (plural: STRATA) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Naming * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CHARACTERISTICS The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy . These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
Canyonlands National Park

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Excavator
EXCAVATORS are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom , dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house". The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels . They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often mistakenly called power shovels . All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid , with hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors . Due to the linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of operation is fundamentally different from cable-operated excavators which use winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements
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Bucket-wheel Excavator
BUCKET-WHEEL EXCAVATORS (BWES) are heavy equipment used in surface mining . The primary function of BWEs is to act as a continuous digging machine in large-scale open-pit mining operations. What sets BWEs apart from other large-scale mining equipment, such as bucket chain excavators , is their use of a large wheel consisting of a continuous pattern of buckets used to scoop material as the wheel turns. They are among the largest vehicles ever constructed, and the biggest bucket-wheel excavator ever built, Bagger 293 , is the largest terrestrial (land) vehicle in human history by weight (14,200 tonnes), according to the Guinness Book of World Records
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