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Coffin
A COFFIN is a funerary box used for viewing or keeping a corpse , either for burial or cremation . The word took two different paths, COFIN in Old French
Old French
originally meaning basket, became COFFIN in English and became COUFFIN in modern French which nowadays means a cradle . A distinction is often made between coffin and casket: the latter is generally understood to denote a four-sided (almost always rectangular ) funerary box, while a coffin is usually six-sided. However, coffins having a one-piece side with a curve at the shoulder instead of a join are more commonly used in the United Kingdom (UK)
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Mausoleum
A MAUSOLEUMa is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph . A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb , or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Notable mausolea * 2.1 Africa * 2.2 Asia, Eastern, Southern, and South-East * 2.3 Asia, western * 2.4 Europe
Europe
* 2.5 Latin America * 2.6 North America * 2.7 Oceania * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Footnotes * 6 External links OVERVIEWThe word derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (near modern-day Bodrum
Bodrum
in Turkey
Turkey
), the grave of King Mausolus , the Persian satrap of Caria , whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
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Longshan Culture
The LONGSHAN (or LUNG-SHAN) CULTURE, also sometimes referred to as the BLACK POTTERY CULTURE, was a late Neolithic
Neolithic
culture in the middle and lower Yellow River valley areas of northern China
China
from about 3000 to 1900 BC. The first archaeological find of this culture took place at the Chengziya Archaeological Site in 1928, with the first excavations in 1930 and 1931. The culture is named after the nearby modern town of Longshan (lit. "Dragon Mountain") in Zhangqiu , Shandong
Shandong
. The culture was noted for its highly polished black pottery (or egg-shell pottery). The population expanded dramatically during the 3rd millennium BC, with many settlements having rammed earth walls. It decreased in most areas around 2000 BC until the central area evolved into the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Erlitou culture
Erlitou culture

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Chapel
The term CHAPEL usually refers to a place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a college , hospital , palace , prison , funeral home , church , synagogue or mosque , located on board a military or commercial ship , or it may be an entirely free-standing building, sometimes with its own grounds. Chapel
Chapel
has also referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain
Great Britain
—outside of the established church . Until the Protestant Reformation , a chapel denoted a place of worship that was either at a secondary location that was not the main responsibility of the local parish priest , or that belonged to a person or institution
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Church (building)
A CHURCH BUILDING or CHURCH HOUSE, often simply called a CHURCH, is a building used for Christian
Christian
religious activities, particularly for worship services. The term in its architectural sense is most often used by Christians to refer to their religious buildings, but it is sometimes used (by analogy) to refer to buildings of other religions . In traditional Christian
Christian
architecture , the church is often arranged in the shape of a Christian
Christian
cross . When viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area
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Loculus (architecture)
LOCULUS ( Latin
Latin
, "little place"), plural loculi, is an architectural compartment or niche that houses a body, as in a catacomb , hypogeum , mausoleum or other place of entombment. In classical antiquity , the mouth of the loculus might be closed with a slab, plain, as in the Catacombs of Rome
Catacombs of Rome
, or sculptural , as in the family tombs of ancient Palmyra
Palmyra
. REFERENCES Wikimedia Commons has media related to LOCULI . * ^ Katherine M. D. Dunbabin, The Roman Banquet: Images of Conviviality (Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 254.SOURCES * Curl, James Stevens (2006). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Paperback) (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 880 pages. ISBN 0-19-860678-8 . This architectural element –related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Liangzhu Culture
The LIANGZHU CULTURE (3400–2250 BC) was the last Neolithic
Neolithic
jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
of China. The culture was highly stratified, as jade, silk , ivory and lacquer artifacts were found exclusively in elite burials, while pottery was more commonly found in the burial plots of poorer individuals. This division of class indicates that the Liangzhu Period was an early state, symbolized by the clear distinction drawn between social classes in funeral structures. A pan-regional urban center had emerged at the Liangzhu city-site and elite groups from this site presided over the local centers. The Liangzhu culture
Liangzhu culture
was extremely influential and its sphere of influence reached as far north as Shanxi
Shanxi
and as far south as Guangdong
Guangdong

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Zhuangzi (book)
The ZHUANGZI (pronounced ; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period
Warring States period
(476–221 BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist
Daoist
sage. Named for its traditional author, "Master Zhuang" (Zhuangzi ), the Zhuangzi is one of the two foundational texts of Daoism
Daoism
—along with the Tao
Tao
Te Ching —and is generally considered the most important of all Daoist
Daoist
writings. The Zhuangzi consists of a large collection of anecdotes, allegories, parables, and fables, which are often humorous or irreverent in nature. Its main themes are of spontaneity in action and of freedom from the human world and its conventions
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Shandong
SHANDONG (Chinese : 山东; formerly romanized as SHANTUNG) is a coastal province of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, and is part of the East China
China
region. Shandong
Shandong
has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism
Taoism
, Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
, and Confucianism
Confucianism
. Shandong's Mount Tai
Mount Tai
is the most revered mountain of Taoism
Taoism
and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan
Jinan
were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China
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Chinese Nobility
Chinese sovereignty and peerage , the NOBILITY OF CHINA, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China . While the concepts of hereditary sovereign and peerage titles and noble families were featured as early as the semi-mythical, early historical period, a settled system of nobility was established from the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
. In the subsequent millennia , this system was largely maintained in form, with some changes and additions, although the content constantly evolved. The last, well-developed system of noble titles was established under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
. The AD-1911 republican Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
saw the dissolution of the official imperial system although the new Republic of China government maintained noble titles like the Duke Yansheng
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Classic Of Rites
The BOOK OF RITES or LIJI, literally the RECORD OF RITES, is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods. The Book of Rites, along with the Rites of Zhou
Rites of Zhou
(Zhouli) and the Book of Etiquette and Rites (Yili), which are together known as the "Three Li (San li)," constitute the ritual (li) section of the Five Classics which lay at the core of the traditional Confucian canon (Each of the "five" classics is a group of works rather than a single text). As a core text of the Confucian canon, it is also known as the CLASSIC OF RITES (LIJING), which some scholars believe was the original title before it was changed by Dai Sheng
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Xunzi (book)
The XUNZI ( ; Chinese : 荀子; Wade–Giles : HSüN-TZU) is an ancient Chinese collection of philosophical writings attributed to Xun Kuang , a 3rd century BC philosopher usually associated with the Confucian tradition. The Xunzi is perhaps most famous for the emphasis it places on education and propriety, as well as its striking assertion that “human nature is detestable.” The text is furthermore an important source of early theories of ritual, cosmology, and governance. The ideas within the Xunzi are thought to have exerted a strong influence on Legalist thinkers, such as Han Fei , and laid the groundwork for much of Han Dynasty political ideology. The text criticizes a wide range of other prominent early Chinese thinkers, including Laozi
Laozi
, Zhuangzi , Mozi
Mozi
, and Mencius
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Catacombs
CATACOMBS are human-made subterranean passageways for religious practice. Any chamber used as a burial place is a catacomb, although the word is most commonly associated with the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and History * 2 Around the world * 3 Decorations * 3.1 Inscriptions * 4 Bacteria * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGY AND HISTORYThe first place to be referred to as catacombs was the system of underground tombs between the 2nd and 3rd milestones of the Appian Way in Rome
Rome
, where the bodies of the apostles Peter and Paul , among others, were said to have been buried. The name of that place in late Latin
Latin
was catacombae, a word of obscure origin, possibly deriving from a proper name, or else a corruption of the Latin
Latin
phrase cata tumbas, "among the tombs"
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Sumatra
SUMATRA (Indonesian : Sumatera) is a large island in western Indonesia
Indonesia
that is part of the Sunda Islands . It is the second largest island that is entirely in Indonesia
Indonesia
(after Borneo
Borneo
and New Guinea , are shared between Indonesia
Indonesia
and other countries) and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (not including adjacent islands such as the Riau Islands and Bangka Belitung Islands). Sumatra
Sumatra
is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean borders the west, northwest, and southwest coasts of Sumatra
Sumatra
with the island chain of Simeulue , Nias and Mentawai off the western coast
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China
China
, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, and Chongqing
Chongqing
) and the Special Administrative Regions
Special Administrative Regions
Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
, also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan
Taiwan

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