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Coffin
A coffin is a funerary box used for viewing or keeping a corpse, either for burial or cremation. The word took two different paths, cofin in Old French
Old French
originally meaning basket, became coffin in English and became couffin in modern French which nowadays means a cradle.[note 1] A distinction is often made between coffin and casket: the latter is generally understood to denote a four-sided (almost always rectangular) funerary box, while a coffin is usually six-sided.[1] However, coffins having a one-piece side with a curve at the shoulder instead of a join are more commonly used in the United Kingdom (UK).Content
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Sugi
Cryptomeria
Cryptomeria
(literally "hidden parts") is a monotypic genus of conifer in the cypress family Cupressaceae, formerly belonging to the family Taxodiaceae. It includes only one species, Cryptomeria japonica
Cryptomeria japonica
(syn. Cupressus
Cupressus
japonica L.f.)
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Loculus (architecture)
Loculus (Latin, "little place"), plural loculi, is an architectural compartment or niche that houses a body, as in a catacomb, hypogeum, mausoleum or other place of entombment. In classical antiquity, the mouth of the loculus might be closed with a slab,[1] plain, as in the Catacombs of Rome, or sculptural, as in the family tombs of ancient Palmyra. References[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Loculi.^ Katherine M. D. Dunbabin, The Roman Banquet: Images of Conviviality (Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 254.Sources[edit]Curl, James Stevens (2006). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Paperback) (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 880 pages. ISBN 0-19-860678-8. This architectural element–related article is a stub
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Chinese Nobility
Chinese sovereignty and peerage,[1] the nobility of China, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China. While the concepts of hereditary sovereign and peerage titles and noble families were featured as early as the semi-mythical, early historical period, a settled system of nobility was established from the Zhou dynasty. In the subsequent millennia, this system was largely maintained in form, with some changes and additions, although the content constantly evolved. The last, well-developed system of noble titles was established under the Qing
Qing
dynasty. The AD-1911 republican Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
saw the dissolution of the official imperial system although the new Republic of China government maintained noble titles like the Duke Yansheng
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Classic Of Rites
The Book of Rites
Book of Rites
or Liji is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods. The Book of Rites, along with the Rites of Zhou
Rites of Zhou
(Zhouli) and the Book of Etiquette and Rites (Yili), which are together known as the "Three Li (Sanli)," constitute the ritual (li) section of the Five Classics which lay at the core of the traditional Confucian canon (Each of the "five" classics is a group of works rather than a single text)
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Xunzi (book)
The Xunzi ([ɕy̌n.tsɨ̀]; Chinese: 荀子; Wade–Giles: Hsün-tzu) is an ancient Chinese collection of philosophical writings attributed to Xun Kuang, a 3rd century BC philosopher usually associated with the Confucian
Confucian
tradition. The Xunzi is perhaps most famous for the emphasis it places on education and propriety,[1] as well as its striking assertion that “human nature is detestable.” The text is furthermore an important source of early theories of ritual,[2] cosmology, and governance. The ideas within the Xunzi are thought to have exerted a strong influence on Legalist thinkers, such as Han Fei, and laid the groundwork for much of Han Dynasty political ideology.[3] The text criticizes a wide range of other prominent early Chinese thinkers, including Laozi, Zhuangzi, Mozi, and Mencius. Some of the more significant chapters are[4]The "Discussion of Heaven (天 tiān)" rejects the notion that heaven has a moral will
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Zhuangzi (book)
The Zhuangzi (pronounced [ʈʂwáŋ.tsɨ̀]; historically romanized Chuang-tzŭ) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476–221 BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist
Daoist
sage. Named for its traditional author, "Master Zhuang" (Zhuangzi), the Zhuangzi is—along with the Tao
Tao
Te Ching—one of the two foundational texts of Daoism, and is generally considered the most important of all Daoist
Daoist
writings. The Zhuangzi consists of a large collection of anecdotes, allegories, parables, and fables, which are often humorous or irreverent in nature. Its main themes are of spontaneity in action and of freedom from the human world and its conventions. The fables and anecdotes in the text attempt to illustrate the falseness of human distinctions between good and bad, large and small, life and death, and human and nature
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Liangzhu Culture
The Liangzhu culture
Liangzhu culture
(/ˈljɑːŋˈdʒuː/; 3400–2250 BC) was the last Neolithic
Neolithic
jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
of China. The culture was highly stratified, as jade, silk, ivory and lacquer artifacts were found exclusively in elite burials, while pottery was more commonly found in the burial plots of poorer individuals. This division of class indicates that the Liangzhu Period was an early state, symbolized by the clear distinction drawn between social classes in funeral structures
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Longshan Culture
The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery
Pottery
Culture, was a late Neolithic
Neolithic
culture in the middle and lower Yellow River
Yellow River
valley areas of northern China from about 3000 to 1900 BC. The first archaeological find of this culture took place at the Chengziya
Chengziya
Archaeological Site in 1928, with the first excavations in 1930 and 1931. The culture is named after the nearby modern town of Longshan (lit. "Dragon Mountain") in Zhangqiu, Shandong. The culture was noted for its highly polished black pottery (or egg-shell pottery). The population expanded dramatically during the 3rd millennium BC, with many settlements having rammed earth walls
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Mausoleum
A mausoleuma is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph
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Chapel
The term chapel usually refers to a place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a college, hospital, palace, prison, funeral home, church, synagogue or mosque,[1] located on board a military or commercial ship, or it may be an entirely free-standing building, sometimes with its own grounds.[2] Chapel
Chapel
has also referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain—outside the established church.[3][4] Until the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, a chapel denoted a place of worship that was either at a secondary location that was not the main responsibility of the local parish priest, or that belonged to a person or institution
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Church Architecture
Church architecture
Church architecture
refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion, partly by innovation and partly by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs, practices and local traditions. From the birth of Christianity
Christianity
to the present, the most significant objects of transformation for Christian architecture and design were the great churches of Byzantium, the Romanesque abbey churches, Gothic cathedrals and Renaissance basilicas with its emphasis on harmony. These large, often ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. However, far more numerous were the parish churches in Christendom, the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village
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Catacombs
Catacombs
Catacombs
are human-made subterranean passageways for religious practice. Any chamber used as a burial place is a catacomb, although the word is most commonly associated with the Roman Empire.[1]Contents1 Etymology and History 2 Around the world 3 Decorations3.1 Inscriptions4 Bacteria 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEtymology and History[edit] The first place to be referred to as catacombs was the system of underground tombs between the 2nd and 3rd milestones of the Appian Way in Rome, where the bodies of the apostles Peter and Paul, among others, were said to have been buried. The name of that place in late Latin
Latin
was catacombae, a word of obscure origin, possibly deriving from a proper name, or else a corruption of the Latin
Latin
phrase cata tumbas, "among the tombs"
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (Polish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Mazurek Dąbro
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Sumatra
Sumatra
Sumatra
is a large island in western Indonesia
Indonesia
that is part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island that is located entirely in Indonesia
Indonesia
(after Borneo, which is shared between Indonesia
Indonesia
and other countries) and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (not including adjacent islands such as the Riau Islands and Bangka Belitung Islands). Sumatra
Sumatra
is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
borders the west, northwest, and southwest coasts of Sumatra
Sumatra
with the island chain of Simeulue, Nias
Nias
and Mentawai off the western coast
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Indonesia
Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of Indonesia Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)FlagNational emblemMotto:  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Bhinneka Tunggal

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