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Codex Vyssegradensis
The VYšEHRAD CODEX ( Latin Codex Vyssegradensis), also known as the Coronation Gospels of King Vratislaus, is a late 11th-century illuminated Romanesque Gospel Book , which is considered the most important and most valuable manuscript kept in Bohemia
Bohemia
(Czech Republic ). Its extremely rich iconography and its visual components rank it among the most precious illuminated manuscripts of the second half of the 11th century in Europe. It was probably made at the order of Czech diplomats to honour an anniversary of the Czech King Vratislav 's coronation which took place in 1085 (Vratislav was the first king of Bohemia
Bohemia
, which was previously a dukedom). The codex is of Danubian provenance, and closely related to three other surviving manuscripts – two of them now in Poland and one in the Prague
Prague
Chapter Library. They probably originated in the circle of the scriptorium at the Monastery of St. Emmeram in Regensburg
Regensburg
. The manuscript is now located in the Czech National Library, Prague
Prague
under the signature XIV A 13. In 2005 it was declared as a National cultural monument of the Czech Republic. The earliest known representation of the Tree of Jesse
Tree of Jesse
is in the book. In a paper analysing this image, J.A
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Prague
Motto: " Praga Caput Rei publicae" (Latin ) "Prague, Head of the Republic" _other historical mottos _ * " Praga mater urbium" (Latin ) "Praha matka měst" (Czech ) "Prague, Mother of Cities" * " Praga Caput Regni" (Latin ) "Prague, Head of the Kingdom" Coordinates: 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E / 50.083; 14.417 Coordinates : 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E / 50.083; 14.417 COUNTRY Czech Republic
Czech Republic
FOUNDED 6th century GOVERNMENT • MAYOR
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National Library Of The Czech Republic
6,919,075 total items 21,204 manuscripts c. 4,200 incunabula OTHER INFORMATION DIRECTOR Petr Kroupa WEBSITE www.nkp.czThe NATIONAL LIBRARY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC (Czech : Národní knihovna České republiky) is the central library of the Czech Republic . It is directed by the Ministry of Culture . The library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař . The National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers. As well as Czech texts, the library also stores older material from Turkey, Iran and India. The library also houses books for Charles University in Prague
Prague
. The library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years. CONTENTS * 1 Collections * 2 Proposed new building * 3 Incidents * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links COLLECTIONSThe most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde
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Wenceslaus I, Duke Of Bohemia
WENCESLAUS I (Czech : Václav ( listen ); c. 907 – September 28, 935), WENCESLAS I, VáCLAV THE GOOD or SAINT WENCESLAUS was the duke (kníže ) of Bohemia
Bohemia
from 921 until his assassination in 935. His younger brother, Boleslaus the Cruel , was complicit in the murder. His martyrdom and the popularity of several biographies gave rise to a reputation for heroic goodness that resulted in his elevation to sainthood. He was posthumously declared to be a king and came to be seen as the patron saint of the Czech state . He is the subject of the well-known " Good King Wenceslas
Good King Wenceslas
", a carol for Saint
Saint
Stephen\'s Day . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Reign * 1.2 Murder * 2 Veneration * 2.1 Wenceslaus in legend * 3 Legacy * 3.1 In popular culture * 4 Genealogy * 5 See also * 6 Footnotes * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYWenceslaus was the son of Vratislaus I , Duke of Bohemia
Bohemia
from the Přemyslid dynasty . His grandfather, Bořivoj I of Bohemia
Bohemia
, was converted to Christianity by Saints Cyril and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius
. His mother, Drahomíra
Drahomíra
, was the daughter of a pagan tribal chief of the Havelli , but was baptized at the time of her marriage
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Initial
In a written or published work, an INITIAL or DROP CAP is a letter at the beginning of a word, a chapter , or a paragraph that is larger than the rest of the text. The word is derived from the Latin initialis, which means standing at the beginning. An initial is often several lines in height and in older books or manuscripts, sometimes ornately decorated. In illuminated manuscripts , initials with images inside them, such as those illustrated here, are known as historiated initials . They were an invention of the Insular art of the British Isles in the eighth century. Initials containing, typically, plant-form spirals with small figures of animals or humans that do not represent a specific person or scene are known as "inhabited" initials. Certain important initials, such as the Beatus initial or "B" of Beatus vir ... at the opening of Psalm 1 at the start of a vulgate Latin
Latin
psalter , could occupy a whole page of a manuscript. These specific initials, in an illuminated manuscript, also were called INITIUMS
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Bohemia
Coordinates : 50°N 15°E / 50°N 15°E / 50; 15 _ This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2013)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_ Bohemia Čechy Historical land Karlštejn Castle FLAG COAT OF ARMS Bohemia _(green)_ in relation to the current regions of the Czech Republic Location of Bohemia in the European Union COUNTRY Czech Republic CAPITAL Prague AREA • TOTAL 52,065 km2 (20,102 sq mi) POPULATION • TOTAL 6,500,000 • DENSITY 120/km2 (320/sq mi) TIME ZONE CET ( UTC+1 ) • SUMMER (DST ) CEST ( UTC+2 )BOHEMIA (/boʊˈhiːmiə/ ; Czech : _Čechy_; German : _ Böhmen_ (help ·info ); Polish : _Czechy_; French: _Bohême_; Latin : _Bohemia_; Italian : _Boemia_) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic . In a broader meaning, Bohemia sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia , especially in a historical context, such as the Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by Bohemian kings
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Hand Of God (art)
The HAND OF GOD, or MANUS DEI in Latin, also known as DEXTERA DOMINI/DEI, the "right hand of God ", is a motif in Jewish and Christian art
Christian art
, especially of the Late Antique
Late Antique
and Early Medieval periods, when depiction of Jehovah or God the Father as a full human figure was considered unacceptable. The hand, sometimes including a portion of an arm, or ending about the wrist, is used to indicate the intervention in or approval of affairs on Earth by God, and sometimes as a subject in itself. It is an artistic metaphor that is generally not intended to indicate that a hand was physically present or seen at any subject depicted. The Hand is seen appearing from above in a fairly restricted number of narrative contexts, often in a blessing gesture (in Christian examples), but sometimes performing an action. In later Christian works it tends to be replaced by a fully realized figure of God the Father , whose depiction had become acceptable in Western Christianity , although not in Eastern Orthodox or Jewish art. Though the hand of God has traditionally been understood as a symbol for God's intervention or approval of human affairs, it is also possible that the hand of God reflects the anthropomorphic conceptions of the deity that may have persisted in late antiquity
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Evangeliary
The EVANGELIARY or BOOK OF THE GOSPELS is a liturgical book containing only those portions of the four gospels which are read during Mass or in other public offices of the Church. The corresponding terms in Latin
Latin
are EVANGELIARIUM and LIBRUM EVANGELIORUM. The Evangeliary
Evangeliary
developed from marginal notes in manuscripts of the Gospels and from lists of gospel readings (capitularia evangeliorum). Generally included at the beginning or end of the book containing the whole gospels, these lists indicated the days on which the various extracts or pericopes were to be read. They developed into books in which they were accompanied by the texts to which they referred, with the passages arranged in accordance with the liturgical year rather than in their order within the gospels themselves, and omitting passages not used in the liturgy. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Origin and use * 3 Manuscript Evangeliaria and the text of the New Testament * 4 Evangeliaria and liturgy * 5 Ornamentation * 6 Precious examples * 7 References * 8 Sources TERMINOLOGYThe name does not date back earlier than the 17th century. The Greeks called such collections Euangelion 'good message', i.e. "Gospel", or eklogadion tou euangeliou, "Selections from the Gospel". The collection of readings from the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles known as Apostolos, "Apostle", or praxapostolos
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Bavaria
BAVARIA /bəˈvɛəriə/ German : _Bayern_ ; Czech : _Bavorsko_), officially the FREE STATE OF BAVARIA (German : _Freistaat Bayern_ ) is a federal state of Germany , occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70.550,19 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), Bavaria is the largest German state by land area. Its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 12.9 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state (after North Rhine-Westphalia ). Bavaria's capital and largest city, Munich , is the third largest city in Germany . The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and formation as a duchy in the 6th century CE (AD) through the Holy Roman Empire to becoming an independent kingdom and finally a state of the Federal Republic of Germany . The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555 . In the 17th century CE (AD), the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire . The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918 , when Bavaria became a republic . In 1946 , the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the state's Catholic majority (52%) and conservative traditions
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Vratislaus II Of Bohemia
VRATISLAUS (or WRATISLAUS) II (Czech : _Vratislav II._) (d. 14 January 1092), the son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt , was the first King of Bohemia as of 15 June 1085, his royal title granted as a lifetime honorific from Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV that did not establish a hereditary monarchy. Before his elevation to the royal dignity, Vratislaus had ruled Bohemia as duke since 1061. On his father's death in 1055, Vratislaus became duke of Olomouc , whereas his older brother became Duke of Bohemia as Spytihněv II. He fell out with his brother and was exiled to Hungary
Hungary
. Vratislaus regained the ducal throne of Olomouc with Hungarian assistance and eventually reconciled with his brother, then succeeded him as duke of Bohemia when he died in 1061. CONTENTS * 1 Campaigns of Henry IV * 2 Relations with the papacy * 3 Expansionism * 4 Internal affairs * 5 Legacy * 6 Family * 7 Ancestry * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Literature * 11 External links CAMPAIGNS OF HENRY IVBoth Pope Alexander II
Pope Alexander II
and Pope Gregory VII confirmed Vratislaus in the privilege of wearing the mitre and tunic which his predecessors had. Despite this, Vratislaus supported Henry in both the Investiture Controversy against the popes and the rebellions in Saxony that dominated his long reign
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Parchment
PARCHMENT is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats. It has been used as a writing medium for over two millennia. Vellum is a finer quality parchment made from the skins of kids, lambs, and young calves. It may be called ANIMAL MEMBRANE by libraries and museums that wish to avoid distinguishing between "parchment" and the more restricted term "vellum " (see below). CONTENTS * 1 Parchment
Parchment
and vellum * 2 History * 3 Manufacture * 3.1 Flaying, soaking, and dehairing * 3.2 Stretching * 4 Treatments * 4.1 Reuse * 5 Jewish parchment * 6 Additional uses of the term * 6.1 Plant-based parchment * 7 Parchment craft * 8 See also * 9 References * 9.1 Notes * 9.2 Bibliography * 10 Further reading * 11 External links PARCHMENT AND VELLUMToday the term "parchment" is often used in non-technical contexts to refer to any animal skin, particularly goat , sheep or cow , that has been scraped or dried under tension. The term originally referred only to the skin of sheep and, occasionally, goats. The equivalent material made from calfskin, which was of finer quality, was known as vellum (from the Old French _velin_ or _vellin_, and ultimately from the Latin
Latin
_vitulus_, meaning a calf); while the finest of all was "uterine vellum", taken from a calf foetus or stillborn calf
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Vyšehrad
VYšEHRAD (Czech for "upper castle") is a historic fort located in the city of Prague
Prague
, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
. It was built, probably in the 10th century, on a hill over the Vltava River . Situated within the castle is the Basilica of St Peter and St Paul , as well as the Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
Cemetery , containing the remains of many famous people from Czech history, among them Antonín Dvořák
Antonín Dvořák
, Bedřich Smetana
Bedřich Smetana
, Karel Čapek , and Alphonse Mucha
Alphonse Mucha
. It also contains one of Prague's oldest surviving buildings, the Rotunda of St Martin from the 11th century. The oldest buildings in Prague
Prague
are located within Prague
Prague
Castle. The Basilica St. Martin, which was built from 900-950, and the Church of the Virgin Mary, which was built in the year 870. Local legend holds that Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
was the location of the first settlement which later became Prague, though thus far this claim remains unsubstantiated. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYWhen the Přemyslid dynasty settled on the current site of Prague Castle , the two castles maintained opposing spheres of influence for approximately two centuries
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St. Vitus Cathedral
The METROPOLITAN CATHEDRAL OF SAINTS VITUS , WENCESLAUS AND ADALBERT (Czech : metropolitní katedrála svatého Víta, Václava a Vojtěcha) is a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
metropolitan cathedral in Prague
Prague
, the seat of the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Prague
Prague
. Until 1997, the cathedral was dedicated only to Saint
Saint
Vitus, and is still commonly named only as ST. VITUS CATHEDRAL. This cathedral is a prominent example of Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
and is the largest and most important church in the country. Located within Prague Castle and containing the tombs of many Bohemian kings and Holy Roman Emperors , the cathedral is under the ownership of the Czech government as part of the Prague Castle complex. Cathedral
Cathedral
dimensions are 124 by 60 metres (407 ft × 197 ft), the main tower is 96.5 metres (317 ft) high, front towers 82 metres (269 ft), arch height 33.2 metres (109 ft). CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 The Gothic Cathedral
Cathedral
* 2.1 St
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Illuminated Manuscript
An ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials , borders (marginalia ) and miniature illustrations . In the strictest definition, the term refers only to manuscripts decorated with gold or silver; but in both common usage and modern scholarship, the term refers to any decorated or illustrated manuscript from Western traditions. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted. Islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works. This article covers the technical, social and economic history of the subject; for an art-historical account, see miniature . The earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period 400 to 600, produced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire . The significance of these works lies not only in their inherent artistic and historical value, but also in the maintenance of a link of literacy offered by non-illuminated texts. Had it not been for the monastic scribes of Late Antiquity , most literature of Greece and Rome would have perished in Europe. As it was, the patterns of textual survivals were shaped by their usefulness to the severely constricted literate group of Christians
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Romanesque Art
ROMANESQUE ART is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 13th century, or later, depending on region. The preceding period is known as the Pre-Romanesque period. The term was invented by 19th-century art historians, especially for Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
, which retained many basic features of Roman architectural style – most notably round-headed arches, but also barrel vaults , apses , and acanthus -leaf decoration – but had also developed many very different characteristics. In Southern France, Spain
Spain
and Italy
Italy
there was an architectural continuity with the Late Antique, but the Romanesque style was the first style to spread across the whole of Catholic Europe, from Sicily to Scandinavia. Romanesque art was also greatly influenced by