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Coccidioides Immitis
Coccidioides
Coccidioides
immitis is a pathogenic fungus that resides in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern United States, northern Mexico, and a few other areas in the Western Hemisphere.[2]Contents1 Epidemiology1.1 Precise location2 Clinical manifestation 3 Treatment3.1 Azoles 3.2 Amphotericin 3.3 Duration of therapy and costs4 HHS select agents listing 5 References 6 External linksEpidemiology[edit] C. immitis, along with its relative C. posadasii,[3] is most commonly seen in the desert regions of the southwestern United States, including certain areas of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, and Utah; and in Central and South America in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Venezuela.[4] Precise location[edit] C. immitis is largely found in California, but also Baja California and Arizona, while C
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Fluconazole
Fluconazole
Fluconazole
is an antifungal medication used for a number of fungal infections.[1] This includes candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and pityriasis versicolor.[1] It is also used to prevent candidiasis in those who are at high risk such as following organ transplantation, low birth weight babies, and those with low blood neutrophil counts.[1] It is given either by mouth or by injection into a vein.[1] Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and increased liver enzymes.[1] Serious side effects may include liver problems, QT prolongation, and seizures
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Gomori Methenamine Silver Stain
In pathology, the Grocott-Gomori's (or Gömöri) methenamine silver stain, abbreviated GMS, is a popular staining method in histology. It is used widely as a screen for fungal organisms. Particularly useful in staining carbohydrates. It can be used to identify the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci[1] which causes a form of pneumonia called Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) or pneumocystosis. The cell walls of these organisms are outlined by the brown to black stain. See also[edit]MethenamineReferences[edit]^ Nassar A, Zapata M, Little JV, Siddiqui MT (November 2006). "Utility of reflex gomori methenamine silver staining for Pneumocystis jirovecii on bronchoalveolar lavage cytologic specimens: A review". Diagn. Cytopathol. 34 (11): 719–23
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U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services
The United States Department of Health
Health
and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health
Health
Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services
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U.S. Department Of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. Approximately 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program
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Biosafety Level 3
A biosafety level is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) to the highest at level 4 (BSL-4). In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have specified these levels.[2] In the European Union, the same biosafety levels are defined in a directive.[3] In Canada the four levels are known as Containment Levels.[4] Facilities with these designations are also sometimes given as P1 through P4 (for Pathogen or Protection level), as in the term "P3 laboratory". At the lowest level of biosafety, precautions may consist of regular hand-washing and minimal protective equipment
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Azole
Azoles are a class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds containing a nitrogen atom and at least one other non-carbon atom (i.e. nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen) as part of the ring.[1] Their names originate from the Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature. The parent compounds are aromatic and have two double bonds; there are successively reduced analogs (azolines and azolidines) with fewer. One, and only one, lone pair of electrons from each heteroatom in the ring is part of the aromatic bonding in an azole. Names of azoles maintain the prefix upon reduction (e.g., pyrazoline, pyrazolidine)
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Teratology
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development. It is often thought of as the study of human congenital abnormalities, but it is broader than that, taking into account other non-birth developmental stages, including puberty; and other organisms, including plants. The related term developmental toxicity includes all manifestations of abnormal development that are caused by environmental insult
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Ketoconazole
Ketoconazole
Ketoconazole
is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections
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Food And Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States
United States
Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States
United States
federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed[4] and veterinary products
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Triazole
A triazole (Htrz) refers to any of the heterocyclic compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, having a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms. There are two sets of isomers that differ in the relative positions of the three nitrogen atoms
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Itraconazole
Itraconazole
Itraconazole
is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.[3] This includes aspergillosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.[3] It may be given by mouth or intravenously.[3] Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, rash, and headache.[3] Severe side effects may include liver problems, heart failure,
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Fungi
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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Posaconazole
Posaconazole
Posaconazole
(trade name Noxafil, Posanol) is a triazole antifungal drug.[1][2]Contents1 Medical uses 2 Pharmacology2.1 Mode of action 2.2 Microbiology3 Pharmacokinetics 4 Research 5 See also 6 ReferencesMedical uses[edit] Posaconazole
Posaconazole
is used to treat invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis and fungal infections caused by Scedosporium and Fusarium
Fusarium
species, which may occur in immunocompromised patients
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Voriconazole
Voriconazole, sold under the brand name Vfend among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.[3] This includes aspergillosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, penicilliosis, and infections by Scedosporium
Scedosporium
or Fusarium.[3] It can be taken by mouth or used by injection into a vein.[3] Common side effects include vision problems, nausea, abdominal pain, rash, headache, and seeing or hearing things that are not present.[3] Use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby.[3] It is in the triazole family of medications.
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