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Coccidioides Immitis
COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS is a pathogenic fungus that resides in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern United States
United States
, northern Mexico
Mexico
, and a few other areas in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
. CONTENTS * 1 Epidemiology * 2 Clinical manifestation * 3 Treatment * 3.1 Azoles * 3.2 Amphotericin * 3.3 Duration of therapy and costs * 4 HHS select agents listing * 5 References * 6 External links EPIDEMIOLOGYC. immitis, along with its relative C. posadasii , is most commonly seen in the desert regions of the southwestern United States, including certain areas of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, and Utah; and in Central and South America in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Venezuela. C
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U.S. Department Of Agriculture
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA), also known as the AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. Approximately 80% of the USDA's $140 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
(formerly known as the Food Stamp program), which is the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance
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Biosafety Level 3
A BIOSAFETY LEVEL is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 0 (BSL-0) to the highest at level 4 (BSL-4). In the United States , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) have specified these levels. In the European Union , the same biosafety levels are defined in a directive . In Canada
Canada
the four levels are known as Containment Levels. Facilities with these designations are also sometimes given as P1 through P4 (for Pathogen or Protection level), as in the term "P3 laboratory". At the lowest level of biosafety, precautions may consist of regular hand-washing and minimal protective equipment
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Azole
AZOLES are a class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds containing a nitrogen atom and at least one other non-carbon atom (i.e. nitrogen , sulfur , or oxygen ) as part of the ring. Their names originate from the Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature . The parent compounds are aromatic and have two double bonds ; there are successively reduced analogs (azolines and azolidines ) with fewer. One, and only one, lone pair of electrons from each heteroatom in the ring is part of the aromatic bonding in an azole. Names of azoles maintain the prefix upon reduction (e.g., pyrazoline , pyrazolidine ). The numbering of ring atoms in azoles starts with the heteroatom that is not part of a double bond, and then proceeds towards the other heteroatom. Imidazole
Imidazole
and other five-membered aromatic heterocyclic systems with two nitrogens are extremely common in nature and form the core of many biomolecules , such as histidine
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Teratology
TERATOLOGY is the study of abnormalities of physiological development. It is often thought of as the study of human congenital abnormalities , but it is broader than that, taking into account other non-birth developmental stages, including puberty ; and other non-human life forms, including plants. The related term developmental toxicity includes all manifestations of abnormal development that are caused by environmental insult. These may include growth retardation, delayed mental development or other congenital disorders without any structural malformations. TERATOGENS are substances that may cause birth defects via a toxic effect on an embryo or foetus
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U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (HHS), also known as the HEALTH DEPARTMENT, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Antigen
In immunology , an ANTIGEN is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response on the part of the host organism , though sometimes antigens can be part of the host itself . In other words, an antigen is any substance that causes an immune system to produce antibodies against it. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into contact with it; this allows a precise identification of the antigen and the initiation of a tailored response . The antibody is said to "match" the antigen in the sense that it can bind to it thanks to adaptations performed to a region of the antibody ; because of this, many different antibodies can be produced, with specificity to bind many different antigens while sharing the same basic structure. In most cases, an antibody can only bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may bind more than one antigen
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Biopsy
A BIOPSY is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon , interventional radiologist , or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist , and can also be analyzed chemically. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an EXCISIONAL BIOPSY. An INCISIONAL BIOPSY or CORE BIOPSY samples a portion of the abnormal tissue without attempting to remove the entire lesion or tumor. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy . Biopsies are most commonly performed for insight into possible cancerous and inflammatory conditions
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Gomori Methenamine Silver Stain
In pathology , the GROCOTT-GOMORI\'S (or GöMöRI) METHENAMINE SILVER STAIN , abbreviated GMS, is a popular staining method in histology . It is used widely as a screen for fungal organisms . Particularly useful in staining carbohydrates. It can be used to identify the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci which causes a form of pneumonia called Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) or pneumocystosis . The cell walls of these organisms are outlined by the brown to black stain. SEE ALSO * Methenamine
Methenamine
REFERENCES * ^ Nassar A, Zapata M, Little JV, Siddiqui MT (November 2006). "Utility of reflex gomori methenamine silver staining for Pneumocystis jirovecii on bronchoalveolar lavage cytologic specimens: A review". Diagn. Cytopathol. 34 (11): 719–23. doi :10.1002/dc.20540 . PMID 17041954
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Ketoconazole
KETOCONAZOLE is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections . Ketoconazole
Ketoconazole
is sold commercially as a tablet for oral administration (although this use has been discontinued in a number of countries), and in a variety of formulations for topical administration, such as creams (used to treat tinea ; cutaneous candidiasis , including candidal paronychia ; and pityriasis versicolor ) and shampoos (used primarily to treat dandruff —seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp). The less toxic and generally more effective triazole antifungal agents fluconazole and itraconazole are usually preferred for systemic use
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Food And Drug Administration
The FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services , one of the United States federal executive departments . The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety , tobacco products, dietary supplements , prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines , biopharmaceuticals , blood transfusions , medical devices , electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods the FDA also enforces other laws, notably Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and associated regulations, many of which are not directly related to food or drugs. These include regulating lasers, cellular phones, condoms and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction
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Caspofungin
(4R,5S)-5--N2-(10,12-dimethyltetradecanoyl)- 4-hydroxy-L-ornithyl-L-threonyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-(S)-4-hydroxy-4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-L-threonyl-threo-3-hydroxy-L-ornithyl-trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline cyclic (6→1)-peptide :185 1--N2-(10,12-dimethyl-1-oxotetradecyl)-4-hydroxy-L-ornithine]-5- pneumocandin B0 :13 AHFS /DRUGS.COM Monograph LICENSE DATA * EU EMA : by INN * US FDA : Caspofungin Pregnancy category * C Routes of administration Intravenous ATC CODE * J02AX04 (WHO) LEGAL STATUS LEGAL STATUS * In general: ℞ (Prescription only) PHARMACOKINETIC DATA BIOAVAILABILITY 100% (intravenous use only) PROTEIN BINDING ~97% METABOLISM Hepatic BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE 9–11 hours EXCRETION Urine
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Amphotericin B
AMPHOTERICIN B is an antifungal medication used for serious fungal infections and leishmaniasis . The fungal infections it is used to treat include aspergillosis , blastomycosis , candidiasis , coccidioidomycosis , and cryptococcosis . For certain infections it is given with flucytosine . It is typically given by injection into a vein Common side effects include a reaction with fever , chills, and headaches soon after the medication is given, as well as kidney problems . Allergic symptoms including anaphylaxis may occur. Other serious side effects include low blood potassium and inflammation of the heart . It appears to be relatively safe in pregnancy . There is a lipid formulation that has a lower risk of side effects. It is in the polyene class of medications and works in part by interfering with the cell membrane of the fungus
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