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Coca Wine
Coca wine
Coca wine
is an alcoholic beverage combining wine with cocaine.[1] One popular brand was Vin Mariani, developed in 1863 by French-Corsican entrepreneur Angelo Mariani.[2] At the end of the 19th century, the fear of drug abuse made coca-based drinks less popular. This led to the prohibition of cocaine in the United States in 1914 via the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, and the removal of cocaine from coca wine as well as Coca-Cola, though coca leaf remained.[2] Coca wine
Coca wine
itself became illegal in the United States when its other main drug, alcohol, was banned just a few years later with Eighteenth Amendment in 1920.Peruvian Wine
Wine
of CocaCoca Mariani medal by Louis-Oscar RotyRelated beverages[edit] In Atlanta, John Pemberton, a pharmacist, developed a beverage based on Vin Mariani, called Pemberton's French Wine
Wine
Coca. It proved popular among American consumers
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Wine
Wine
Wine
(from Latin
Latin
vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes, generally Vitis
Vitis
vinifera, fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.[1] Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production
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Eighteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal. The separate Volstead Act
Volstead Act
set down methods for enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes). The Amendment was the first to set a time delay before it would take effect following ratification, and the first to set a time limit for its ratification by the states. President Woodrow Wilson vetoed the bill, but the House of Representatives overrode the veto, and the Senate did so as well the next day
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Syrup
In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from Arabic: شراب‎; sharāb, beverage, wine and Latin: sirupus)[1] is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. Its consistency is similar to that of molasses. The viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which has many hydroxyl (OH) groups, and the water. Syrups can be made by dissolving sugar in water or by reducing naturally sweet juices such as cane juice, sorghum juice, or maple sap
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Prohibition In The United States
Prohibition
Prohibition
in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933. During the 19th century, alcoholism, family violence, and saloon-based political corruption prompted activists, led by pietistic Protestants, to end the alcoholic beverage trade to cure the ill society and weaken the political opposition. One result was that many communities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries introduced alcohol prohibition, with the subsequent enforcement in law becoming a hotly debated issue. Prohibition
Prohibition
supporters, called "drys", presented it as a victory for public morals and health. Promoted by the "dry" crusaders, the movement was led by pietistic Protestants and social Progressives
Progressives
in the Prohibition, Democratic, and Republican parties
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Atlanta
Atlanta
Atlanta
(/ætˈlæntə/) is the capital and most populous city of the state of Georgia in the United States. With an estimated 2016 population of 472,522,[12] it is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta
Atlanta
metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the United States.[6] Atlanta
Atlanta
is the seat of Fulton County and a small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County. Atlanta
Atlanta
was founded as a transportation hub at the intersection of two railroad lines in 1837. After being mostly burned to the ground during the American Civil War, the city rose from its ashes to become a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South". During the 1960s, Atlanta
Atlanta
became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Louis-Oscar Roty
Louis-Oscar Roty usually known as Oscar Roty (11 June 1846 – 23 March 1911) was one of the most celebrated[1] medallists of the Art Nouveau period.Contents1 Biography 2 Gallery 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Louis-Oscar Roty was born on 11 June 1846 in Paris. He first studied painting and sculpture, working under Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Augustin-Alexandre Dumont and François-Joseph-Hubert Ponscarme. Ponscarme (1827–1903), his mentor, was largely responsible for the renewal of medallic art at the end of the nineteenth century. In 1867 he had abandoned the medal rim in his design for his medal of Naudet, the background and graphics becoming part of the sculpture. Roty, along with Champlain, Alexandre Charpentier, and others, influenced by the Art Nouveau movement, advanced this resurgence of art in medal design. Roty, in particular, introduced the Renaissance form of the plaquette, which further emphasized the significance of the medal as a work of art
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Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.[2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Harrison Narcotics Tax Act
The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act
Harrison Narcotics Tax Act
(Ch. 1, 38 Stat. 785) was a United States federal law
United States federal law
that regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates and coca products
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Angelo Mariani (chemist)
Angelo Mariani or Ange-François Mariani (1838 in Pero-Casevecchie, Haute-Corse – 1914) was a French chemist from the island of Corsica. He is best known as the inventor of the first cocawine, Vin Mariani, in 1863. His contribution was to introduce the coca leaf indirectly to the general public. Mariani imported tons of coca leaves and used an extract from them in many products. It was Mariani's coca wine, though, that made him rich and famous. Mariani was also awarded with a medal of appreciation from Pope Leo XIII. This tonic wine has been described as the ancestor of Coca-Cola.[1] References[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Angelo Mariani.^ "Drug that spans the ages: The history of cocaine". London: The Independent. 2006-03-02
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Cocaine
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.[10] It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or as a solution injected into a vein.[9] Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation.[9] Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils.[9] High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature.[11] Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes.[9] Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.[12] Cocaine
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Alcoholic Beverage
An alcoholic drink, or alcoholic beverage, is a drink that contains alcohol (ethanol), a depressant which in low doses causes euphoria, reduced anxiety, and sociability and in higher doses causes drunkenness, stupor and unconsciousness. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, and alcoholism. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.[1] Some countries ban such activities entirely, but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014.[2] Alcohol
Alcohol
is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world
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John Pemberton
John Stith Pemberton (July 8, 1831 – August 16, 1888) was an American pharmacist who is best known as the developer and founder of Coca-Cola. In May 1886, he developed an early version of a beverage that would later become world-famous as Coca-Cola, but sold his rights to the drink shortly before his death.Contents1 Background 2 Founding Coca-Cola 3 Pemberton sells the business 4 Death 5 In popular culture 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBackground[edit] Pemberton was born July 8, 1831, in Knoxville, Georgia, and spent most of his childhood in Rome, Georgia. His parents were James C. Pemberton and Martha L. Gant. He entered the Reform Medical College of Georgia in Macon, and in 1850, at the age of nineteen, he was licensed to practice pharmacy
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