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Coal Mine
Coal
Coal
mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal
Coal
is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel
Steel
and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, and the above-ground structures the pit head. In Australia, "colliery" generally refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States, "colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used. Coal
Coal
mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines
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Coalmine (song)
"Coalmine'" is a song written by Roxie Dean, Ron Harbin and Richie McDonald, and recorded by American country music artist Sara Evans. It was released in April 2006 as the third single from her album Real Fine Place.Contents1 Content 2 Chart performance 3 References 4 External linksContent[edit] "Coalmine" is an uptempo fiddle-driven song about a woman who loves her man, a coal miner, and wants him to love her until he returns to work again. Despite Evans coming off two Top 10 hits on the country charts, "Coalmine" met resistance with country radio due to the timing of its release following a deadly explosion at Sago Mine, West Virginia
West Virginia
a few months earlier
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Power Shovel
A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel or Electric Rope Shovel
Shovel
[2]) is a bucket-equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction.[3] Power Shovels are a type of rope/cable excavator, where the digging arm is controlled and powered by winches and steel ropes, rather than hydraulics like in the more common hydraulic excavators.P&H 4100 XPB cable loading shovel.Contents1 Design 2 Use 3 Operation 4 Gian
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Colombia
Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order"Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish) O unfading glory!Location of  Colombia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Bogotá 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067Official languages SpanishaRecognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Open Cut
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface; that is, where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling (as would be the case for sand, cinder, and gravel)
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface[1], with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Naming 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
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Bituminous Coal
Bituminous coal
Bituminous coal
or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its coloration can be black or sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. These distinctive sequences, which are classified according to either "dull, bright-banded" or "bright, dull-banded", is how bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. Bituminous coal
Bituminous coal
is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. Its primary constituents are macerals: vitrinite, and liptinite
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Open Cast Mining
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface; that is, where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling (as would be the case for sand, cinder, and gravel)
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Thermal Coal
Coal
Coal
is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] Coal
Coal
is a fossil fuel that forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes
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New South Wales
New South Wales
Wales
(abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland
Queensland
to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia
Australia
to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
to the east. The Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In March 2017[update], the population of New South Wales
Wales
was over 7.8 million,[9] making it Australia's most populous state
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Anthracite
Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster. It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest energy density of all types of coal except for graphite and is the highest ranking of coal. Anthracite
Anthracite
is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism), in which the carbon content is between 92% and 98%.[1][2] The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition.[3] Anthracite
Anthracite
ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame. Anthracite
Anthracite
is categorized into standard grade, which is used mainly in power generation, and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG), the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector
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Excavator
Excavators (hydraulic) are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house".[1] The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often mistakenly called power shovels
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Coal Preparation Plant
A coal preparation plant (CPP; also known as a coal handling and preparation plant (CHPP), coal handling plant, prep plant, tipple or wash plant) is a facility that washes coal of soil and rock, crushes it into graded sized chunks (sorting), stockpiles grades preparing it for transport to market, and more often than not, also loads coal into rail cars, barges, or ships. The more of this waste material that can be removed from coal, the lower its total ash content, the greater its market value and the lower its transportation costs.Contents1 Run-of-mine (ROM) coal 2 Handling 3 Sampling 4 Washability 5 Crushing 6 Screening 7 Gravity separation7.1 Jigs 7.2 Dense medium process 7.3 Dense medium baths (DMBs) 7.4 Dense medium cyclones8 Fine coal methods 9 Dewatering 10 Control and instrumentation 11 See also 12 References 13 External linksRun-of-mine (ROM) coal[edit] The coal delivered from the mine that reports to the coal preparation plant is called run-of-mine, or ROM, coal
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Bucket-wheel Excavator
Bucket-wheel excavators (BWEs) are heavy equipment used in surface mining. The primary function of BWEs is to act as a continuous digging machine in large-scale open-pit mining operations. What sets BWEs apart from other large-scale mining equipment, such as bucket chain excavators, is their use of a large wheel consisting of a continuous pattern of buckets used to scoop material as the wheel turns
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Underground Mining (soft Rock)
Underground soft rock mining is a group of underground mining techniques used to extract coal, oil shale, potash and other minerals or geological materials from sedimentary ("soft") rocks. [1] Because deposits in sedimentary rocks are commonly layered and relatively less hard, the mining methods used differ from those used to mine deposits in igneous or metamorphic rocks (see Underground mining (hard rock)). Underground mining techniques also differ greatly from those of surface mining.Contents1 Methods1.1 Mine shorthand2 See also 3 References 4 External linksMethods[edit]Longwall mining – A set of longwall mining equipment consists of a coal shearer mounted on conveyor operating underneath a series of self-advancing hydraulic roof supports. Almost the entire process can be automated. Longwall mining
Longwall mining
machines are typically 150–250 metres in width and 1.5 to 3 metres high
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Clay County, Kentucky
Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,730.[1] Its county seat is Manchester.[2] The county was formed in 1807 and named in honor of Green Clay (1757–1826).[3] Clay was a member of the Virginia and Kentucky State legislatures, first cousin once removed of Henry Clay, U.S. Senator from Kentucky and Secretary of State in the 19th century.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Adjacent counties3 Demographics 4 Communities4.1 City 4.2 Census-designated place 4.3 Other unincorporated places5 Politics 6 Health6.1 Life expectancy7 See also 8 References8.1 Further reading9 External linksHistory[edit] Clay County was established in 1807 from land given by Floyd, Knox and Madison counties. The courthouse burned in January 1936.[4] Geography[edit] According to the U.S
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