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Clwydian Range
The CLWYDIAN RANGE (Welsh : Bryniau Clwyd) is a series of hills and mountains in north east Wales
Wales
that runs from Llandegla in the south to Prestatyn in the north, with the highest point being the popular Moel Famau . The range is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty . The AONB has been extended to include the Dee Valley around Llangollen
Llangollen
including the Horseshoe Pass and Castell Dinas Bran
Castell Dinas Bran
, extending the area to 150 square miles (389 square km). The highest point in the AONB is Moel y Gamelin at 1,893 feet (577 metres). CONTENTS * 1 Geology * 2 The hills * 3 Area of outstanding natural beauty * 4 Wildlife * 5 Recreation * 6 Summits * 7 References * 8 External links GEOLOGYThe Clwydian Hills are formed from an upstanding block of Silurian age sandstones , mudstones and siltstones
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Tumuli
A TUMULUS (plural TUMULI) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as BARROWS, BURIAL MOUNDS or KURGANS , and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn , which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials , such as passage graves . A round barrow is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen , a cist , a mortuary enclosure , a mortuary house , or a chamber tomb . Examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe
Maeshowe

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Snowdonia
SNOWDONIA (Welsh : Eryri) is a mountainous region in north west Wales and a national park of 823 square miles (2,130 km2) in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales
Wales
, in 1951. CONTENTS * 1 Name and extent * 2 Snowdonia
Snowdonia
National Park * 3 Tourism * 4 Mountain ranges * 5 Mountain walking * 6 Nature, landscape and the environment * 6.1 Wildlife * 6.2 Climate * 7 References * 8 External links NAME AND EXTENTThe English name for the area derives from Snowdon , which is the highest mountain in Wales
Wales
at 3,560 ft (1,085 m). In Welsh , the area is named Eryri
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Abergele
ABERGELE is a community and large village, situated on the north coast of Wales between the holiday resorts of Colwyn Bay and Rhyl , in Conwy County Borough . Its northern suburb of Pensarn lies on the Irish Sea coast and is known for its beach , where it is claimed by some that a ghost ship has been sighted. Abergele and Pensarn railway station serves both resorts. Abergele is often overlooked due to the popularity of nearby Rhyl , Prestatyn , Colwyn Bay , Llandudno and Conwy . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Geography * 3 History * 4 Ethnography * 5 Notable people * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe meaning of the name Abergele can be deduced by aber being the Welsh word for estuary, river mouth or confluence and 'Gele ' the name of the river which flows through the town. Gele is a dialectal form of gelau, which means spear, describing the action of the river cutting through the land
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Permian
The PERMIAN is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 252.2 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic Era; the following Triassic
Triassic
Period belongs to the Mesozoic Era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison , who named it after the city of Perm
Perm
. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals , turtles , lepidosaurs , and archosaurs . The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia , surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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Carboniferous
The CARBONIFEROUS is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Permian
Permian
Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous
Carboniferous
means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō ("coal ") and ferō ("I bear, I carry"), and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern 'system' names to be employed, and reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time. The Carboniferous
Carboniferous
is often treated in North America
North America
as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the later Pennsylvanian . Terrestrial life was well established by the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period
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Fault (geology)
In geology , a FAULT is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock , across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults . Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes . A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is a place where the fault can be seen or mapped on the surface. A fault trace is also the line commonly plotted on geologic maps to represent a fault. Since faults do not usually consist of a single, clean fracture, geologists use the term FAULT ZONE when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane. The two sides of a non-vertical fault are known as the hanging wall and footwall
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Escarpment
An ESCARPMENT is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations. Usually escarpment is used interchangeably with SCARP (from the Italian scarpa, shoe ). But some sources differentiate the two terms, where escarpment refers to the margin between two landforms, while scarp is synonymous with a cliff or steep slope. The surface of the steep slope is called a scarp face.This (escarpment) is a ridge which has a gentle(dip) slope on one side and a steep (scarp) slope on the other side
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Peak District
The PEAK DISTRICT is an upland area in England at the southern end of the Pennines
Pennines
. It is mostly in northern Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, but also includes parts of Cheshire
Cheshire
, Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
. An area of great diversity, it is split into the northern Dark Peak , where most of the moorland is found and the geology is gritstone , and the southern White Peak , where most of the population lives and the geology is mainly limestone . The Peak District
Peak District
National Park
National Park
became the first national park in the United Kingdom in 1951
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Manchester
Coordinates : 53°28′N 2°14′W / 53.467°N 2.233°W / 53.467; -2.233 MANCHESTER City
City
and Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan borough
Clockwise from top: Skyline of
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Mountain Bike
A MOUNTAIN BIKE or MOUNTAIN BICYCLE (abbreviated Mtn Bike or MTB ) is a bicycle designed for off-road cycling. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain. These typically include a front or full suspension , large knobby tires , more durable wheels , more powerful brakes, and lower gear ratios for climbing steep grades. Mountain bikes are typically ridden on mountain trails, singletrack , fire roads , and other unpaved surfaces. This type of terrain commonly has rocks, roots, loose dirt, and steep grades. Many trails have additional TTF\'s (Technical Trail Features) such as log piles , log rides , rock gardens , skinnies , gap jumps , and wall-rides . Mountain bikes are built to handle these types of terrain and features
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Iron Age
The IRON AGE is an archaeological era , referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World
Old World
( Afro-Eurasia ) when the dominant toolmaking material was iron . It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
and the Stone Age in Africa, with exceptions. Meteoric iron
Meteoric iron
has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt iron ore , remove impurities and regulate the amount of carbon in the alloy were developed. The start of the Iron
Iron
Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region
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Hillfort
A HILLFORT or HILL FORT is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages . Some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks , with stockades or defensive walls , and external ditches. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC , and were in use in many Celtic areas of central and western Europe until the Roman conquest
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Llandegla Forest
LLANDEGLA FOREST (Welsh : COED LLANDEGLA) is a forest of planted conifers covering 6.5 square kilometres in Denbighshire , north-east Wales. It is situated to the south-east of the village of Llandegla at the north-western edge of Ruabon Moors . The forest is owned by UPM Tilhill and planting began in the early 1970s. The trees are mostly Sitka Spruce with a smaller area of larch . In the middle of the forest lies Pendinas Reservoir (Welsh : Llyn Pendinas). It was constructed in the late nineteenth century by Brymbo Water Company to provide water for the local area. It is currently managed by Dee Valley Water . The forest is used for a range of recreational activities including mountain-biking and walking. The Offa\'s Dyke Path , a long-distance footpath passes through the forest. Fishing activity takes place at the reservoir. The forest and adjacent moorland are important habitats for the Black Grouse which is declining in many parts of England and Wales
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Chirk
Y Waun may also refer to Gwauncaegurwen in Glamorgan CHIRK (Welsh : Y Waun, meaning The Moor ) is a small town and local government community in Wales . It is located in the traditional county of Denbighshire , although is currently administered as part of Wrexham County Borough . In the 2011 census, it had a population of 4,468. It is situated between Wrexham and Oswestry and has been part of the County Borough since local government reorganisation in 1996. The border with the English county of Shropshire is immediately south of the town, on the other side of the River Ceiriog . The town is served by Chirk railway station and the A5 /A483 roads. CONTENTS * 1 History and heritage * 2 Modern day * 3 Sport * 4 Notable people * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY AND HERITAGEChirk Castle , a National Trust property, is a medieval castle
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